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signum, i, n. [perh. Sanscr. sag-, to cling to, adhere; cf. sigilla].

I. In gen., a mark, token, sign, indication (very frequent in all styles and periods; cf. insigne): meo patri torulus inerit aureus Sub petaso: id signum Amphitruoni non erit, Plaut. Am. prol. 145 sq.: ut eam (nutricem) adducam et signa ostendam haec, i. e. crepundia, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 38; 5, 3, 5: ut fures earum rerum, quas ceperunt, signa commutant, etc., Cic. Fin. 5, 25, 74; so (with notae) id. de Or. 2, 41, 174; id. Lael. 17, 62; cf.: omne probabile aut signum est aut credibile ... Signum est, quod sub sensum aliquem cadit et quiddam significat, quod ex ipso profectum videtur, etc., id. Inv. 1, 30, 47 sq.: aut pecori signum aut numeros inpressit acervis, Verg. G. 1, 263; cf.: servitii signum cervice gerens, Ov. M. 3, 16: jaculo mihi vulnera fecit.—Signa vides: apparet adhuc vetus ecce cicatrix, Ov. M. 12, 444: metam Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti Scirent, etc., Verg. A. 5, 130: scutum signi gratia positum, Quint. 6, 3, 38: signa pedum, tracks, prints, Ov. M. 4, 543; and simply signa, Verg. A. 8, 212 al.: oculis mihi signum dedit, Ne se appellarem, Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 45: dare, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11: dicere deos gallis signum dedisse cantandi, Cic. Div. 2, 26, 57 al.: signa esse ad salutem, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2: animi pudentis signum, id. Heaut. 1, 1, 68: color pudoris signum, id. And. 5, 3, 7: signa doloris ostendere, Cic. de Or. 2, 45, 190: mortis dare, Lucr. 6, 1182: timoris mittere, to exhibit, display, Caes. B. C. 1, 71 et saep.—With obj.-clause: magnum hoc quoque signum est, dominam esse extra noxiam, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 57; Nep. Att. 17, 2.—In predic. gen. with neutr. pron.: hoc est signi; ubi primum poterit, se illinc subducet, Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 14: id erit signi me invitum facere, quod, etc., Cic. Rosc. Am. 30, 83; Auct. Her. 4, 5, 8; Cato, R. R. 38, 4; 88, 2: nil tamen est signi, Lucr. 5, 918; cf.: quid signi? Cic. Cael. 16, 38, 2.— Hence, a surname, epithet (rare): huic signum exercitus apposuit, Vop. Am. 6; cf. Capitol. Gord. 4.—

II. In partic.

A. In milit. lang.

1. The distinctive sign of a division of an army.

a. A military standard, ensign, banner (including the aquila): signifero interfecto, signo amisso, Caes. B. G. 2, 25: ut neque signiferi viam, nec signa milites cernerent, Liv. 33, 7: Hasdrubal ut procul signa legionum fulgentia vidit, id. 28, 14; 22, 21; Col. 9, 9, 4: inter signa militaria, Hor. Epod. 9, 15: cum unius signi militibus pergit ire, Liv. 33, 1: signa militaria ex proelio relata, Caes. B. C. 3, 99; so, militaria, id. B. G. 7, 2; Plin. 33, 33, 19, 58.— Hence the expressions: signa sequi, to follow the standards, to march in military order, Sall. J. 80, 2; Liv. 24, 48, 11: signa subsequi, to keep in order of battle, Caes. B. G. 4, 26: signa observare, Sall. J. 51, 1: signa servare, Liv. 8, 34, 10; Veg. Mil. 1, 9: ab signis discedere, to desert the standards, leave the ranks, Caes. B. G. 5, 16; 5, 33 fin.; id. B. C. 1, 44; Liv. 25, 20 al.; cf.: ab ordinibus signisque discedere, Front. Strat. 1, 5, 3: signa relinquere, to desert, Sall. C. 9, 4; Liv. 5, 6 al.: signa deserere, Liv. 8, 34, 9: signa ferre, i. e. to break up the camp, Caes. B. G. 1, 39 fin.; 1, 40; Liv. 2, 49, 3; 10, 5 al.; for which: movere signa, id. 1, 14, 9; 27, 2, 12; Verg. G. 3, 236; and: tollere, Vell. 2, 61, 2; Auct. B. Alex. 57, 1; but: ferte signa in hostem, attack, Liv. 9, 23, 13: signa constituere, to halt, Caes. B. G. 7, 47; cf.: infestis contra hostes signis constiterunt, id. ib. 7, 51: signa proferre, to advance, Liv. 4, 32, 10: signa convertere, to wheel, turn, or face about, Caes. B. G. 1, 25 fin.; 2, 26: Liv. 8, 11; 2, 14; 4, 29; for which, vertere signa, id. 9, 35: signa inferre (in aliquem), to advance to the attack, make an assault, Caes. B. G. 1, 25 fin.; 2, 26; 7, 67; id. B. C. 2, 42; Cic. Phil. 5, 8, 23; Sall. J. 56, 5; Liv. 2, 53; 9, 27; 44, 12 al; cf.: signa conferre cum aliquo, to engage with, engage in close fight, Cic. Att. 7, 5, 5; id. Pis. 21, 49; and cf.: collatis signis pugnare, superare aliquem, etc., Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 44; Liv. 1, 33; 2, 50; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 23, 66; but conferre signa also means simply to bring the standards together (to one place), Caes. B. G. 7, 2; 2, 25; Liv. 37, 21: signa in laevum cornu confert, concentrates his troops, id. 7, 15, 4: signa transferre, to desert, Caes. B. C. 1, 24: signa convellere, to take up the standards, which had been fixed in the ground, Liv. 3, 7, 3; 3, 54, 10; 5, 37, 4; so, vellere signa, id. 3, 50, 11; Verg. G. 4, 108: revellere signa, Luc. 7, 77; cf.: signa figere, to encamp, Amm. 27, 10, 9: defigere signa, Sil. 8, 625: sub signis ducere legiones, ire, esse, etc., together, in order, in rank and file, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 71 (with ordine); Cic. Att. 16, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 51; Tac. H. 2, 14: signa hostium turbare, to throw into disorder, Liv. 9, 73: ante signa, before the army, id. 5, 18; 6, 7; 7, 16: post signa, id. 2, 49.—

(b). Transf., in gen.: infestis prope signis inferuntur Galli in Fonteium, Cic. Font. 20, 44 (16, 34).—

b. Esp., the standard or ensign of single cohorts and maniples (opp. aquila, the standard of the entire legion): cum fasces, cum tubas, cum signa militaria, cum aquilam illam argenteam ... scirem esse praemissam, Cic. Cat. 2, 6, 13; Galb. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 30, 5; Suet. Calig. 14 fin. Oud.; Tac. A. 1, 18; id. H. 2, 29 fin.; Plin. 13, 3, 4, 23; Luc. 1, 6; 1, 224 al. (cf. aquila, 2.): manipulos exercitus minimas manus quae unum sequuntur signum, Varr. L. L. 5, 88 Müll.—

(b). Meton., a cohort, a maniple: octo cohortes in fronte constituit, reliquarum signa in subsidio artius collocat, Sall. C. 59, 2; Liv. 8, 9; 25, 23 fin.; 33, 1; 27, 14; 28, 14; Auct. B. Hisp. 18, 3.—

2. A sign, signal; a watchword, password, given by a wind-instrument, by the tessera, or otherwise: signum tubā dare, Caes. B. G. 2, 20; 7, 81: proelii committendi dare, id. ib. 2, 21: recipiendi dare, id. ib. 7, 52: receptui dare, Liv. 4, 31; 26, 45; 3, 22; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 3: signum dare ut, etc., Liv. 2, 20; 4, 39: proelii exposcere, Caes. B. G. 7, 19: concinere, id. B. C. 3, 92 fin.; Liv. 30, 5; cf. Tac. A. 1, 68: canere, Sall. C. 59, 1; id. J. 99, 1; Liv. 1, 1; 4, 31; 27, 47; Cic. Rep. 1, 3, 3 al. (v. cano).—For the chariot race: signum mittendis quadrigis dare, Liv. 8, 40, 3: signum mittere, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107: signo Felicitatis dato, the word, watchword, Felicitas, Auct. B. Afr. 83: signum petere, Suet. Calig. 56; id. Claud. 42; id. Ner. 9; cf.: it bello tessera signum, Verg. A. 7, 637.—Transf.: tu illam (virtutem) jubes signum petere, i. e. to be in subjection, Sen. Ben. 4, 2, 2.—

B. A sign or token of any thing to come; a prognostic, symptom (cf.: portentum, indicium): ipse et equus ejus repente concidit: nec eam rem habuit religioni, objecto signo, ut peritis videbatur, ne committeret proelium, Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: medici signa quaedam habent ex venis et ex spiritu aegroti, id. ib. 2, 70, 145; cf. Verg. G. 3, 440; 3, 503; 4, 253; Cels. 2, 3: prospera signa dare, Ov. H. 18 (19), 152.—

C. An image, as a work of art; a figure, statue, picture, etc. (syn.: effigies, imago, simulacrum); inerant (classi) signa expressa, Titani quomodo, etc., Naev. 2, 13: statuas deorum, exempla earum facierum, s gna domi pro supellectile statuere, Cato ap. Prisc. p. 782 P.: signum pictum in pariete, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 44: signum in fano, id. Rud. 2, 7, 2: aëna signa, Lucr. 1, 318: ante signum Jovis Statoris concidit, Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: signum aeneum, marmoreum, eburneum, id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, 1; cf. id. Off. 1, 41, 147; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 248: cratera impressum signis, Verg. A. 5, 536; 5, 267; 9, 263: (vestis) auro signisque ingentibus apta, Lucr. 5, 1428: ex ornatis aedibus per aulaea et signa, Sall. H. 2, 23, 2 Dietsch: pallam signis auroque rigentem, Verg. A. 1, 648: e Pario formatum marmore signum, Ov. M. 3, 419; cf. id. ib. 5, 183; 12, 398: statuas, signa, picturas commendet, Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 5.—

D. An image or device on a seal-ring; a seal, signet: ostendi tabellas Lentulo, et quaesivi, cognosceretne signum. Annuit. Est vero, inquam, notum signum, imago avi tui, etc., Cic. Cat. 3, 5, 10: (patera) in cistulā obsignata signo est, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 265; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 45, 117: tabulae maximae signis hominum nobilium consignantur, id. Quint. 6, 25: imprimat his signa tabellis, Hor. S. 2, 6, 38: litterae integris signis praetoribus traduntur, Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6; Sall. C. 47, 3: signo laeso non insanire lagenae, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 134: volumen sub signo habere, to have under seal, Cic. Att. 9, 10, 4; cf.: sub signo claustrisque rei publicae positum vectigal, id. Agr. 1, 7, 21: nec pacta conventaque inpressis signis custodirentur, Sen. Ben. 3, 15, 1: cum sol duodena peregit signa, Ov. M. 13, 618.—

E. A sign in the heavens, a constellation (cf. sidus): caeli subter labentia signa, Lucr. 1, 2: loca caelio Omnia, dispositis signis ornata, id. 5, 695: signorum ortus et obitus, Cic. Inv. 1, 34, 59: signis omnibus ad idem principium stellisque revocatis, id. Rep. 6, 22, 24: in signo leonis, id. Div. 1, 53, 121: signorum obitus speculari et ortus, Verg. G. 1, 257; id. A. 7, 138: signum pluviale Capellae, Ov. F. 5, 113: ponemusque suos ad vaga signa dies, id. ib. 1, 310: nox caelo diffundere signa parabat, Hor. S. 1, 5, 10; cf. id. C. 2, 8, 11.—

F. Miraculous works (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Dan. 3, 99; id. Matt. 24, 24; id. Joan. 2, 11 et saep.