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spondĕo, spŏpondi, sponsum, 2 (perf. spepondi, Cic., Caes., and Val. Antias ap. Gell. 7, 9, 12 sq.; Inscr. Orell. 4358; without redup. sponderat, Tert. Carm. adv. Mart. 3, 135; subj. sponsis = spoponderis, an ancient formula of prayer in Fest. p. 351 Müll.), v. a. [akin with σπένδω, to pour out, = libare; cf. σπονδαί, league].

I. Jurid. and publicists' t. t.

A. In bargains, covenants, treaties, etc., to promise solemnly, to bind, engage, or pledge one's self (class.; syn.: recipio, stipulor, promitto; cf.: vadimonium obire, vadari); according to the civil law in its original form, it was essential to a binding contract verbally made (verbis) that a proposition and its acceptance should be expressed by the question spondes? and the answer spondeo; and only at a later period was the use of promitto, etc., valid (v. Sandars, Introd. ad Just. Inst. p. LV): verbis obligatio fit ex interrogatione et responsione, velut, Dari spondes? Spondeo. Dabis? Dabo. Promittis? Promitto; sed haec quidem verborum obligatio: dari spondes? spondeo, propria civium Romanorum est, cetera vero juris gentium sunt, Gai. Inst. 3, 91 sq.; Dig. 45, 1, 126; 45, 1, 133; cf. the whole title, ib. 45, 1: De verborum obligationibus: He. Aeternum tibi dapinabo victum, si vera autumas ... Er. Sponden' tu istut? He. Spondeo, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 118: qui stulte spondet, Cato ap. Rufin. 18, p. 210: quis stipulatus est? Ubi? Quo die? Quis spopondisse me dicit? Nemo, Cic. Rosc. Com. 5, 13: ut aliquando spondere se diceret, id. Verr. 2, 5, 54, 142: si quis quod spopondit, quā in re verbo se obligavit uno, si id non facit, etc., id. Caecin. 3, 7: faeneris, quod stipulanti spoponderam tibi, reliquam pensiunculam percipe, Col. 10 praef.: ego meā fide spondeo futurum ut omnia invenias, etc., Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10.—

B. To promise for another, to become security for a person, to enter bail, etc.: quod multis benigne fecerit, pro multis spoponderit, has become security, Cic. Planc. 19, 47: sed tamen scire velim quando dicar spopondisse et pro patre anne pro filio, id. Att. 12, 14, 2: quod pro Cornificio me abhinc annis XXV. spopondisse dicit Flavius, id. ib. 12, 17: et se quisque paratum ad spondendum Icilio ostendere, Liv. 3, 46, 7: sponsum diceres advocasse, Cic. Fragm. Clod. et Cur. 3, 4, p. 29 B. and K.: hic sponsum vocat, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 67: sponsum descendam, quia promisi, Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 2. —

2. Transf., of promises or pledges made in behalf of a government, etc.: non foedere pax Caudina, sed per sponsionem facta est ... Spoponderunt consules, legati, quaestores, tribuni militum, Liv. 9, 5, 4: quod spondendo pacem servassent exercitum, id. 9, 8, 15: quid tandem si spopondissemus urbem hanc relicturum populum Romanum? id. 9, 9, 6: ea demum sponsio esset, quam populi jussu spopondissemus, id. 9, 9, 13: hosti nihil spopondistis, civem neminem spondere pro vobis jussistis, id. 9, 9, 16.—

C. Esp., to promise or engage in marriage, betroth: qui uxorem ducturus erat ab eo unde ducenda erat, stipulabatur eam in matrimonium ductam iri; qui daturus erat itidem spondebat. Tum quae promissa erat sponsa appellabatur, qui spoponderat ducturum, sponsus, Sulp. Dot. ap. Gell. 4, 4, 2: Ly. Istac lege filiam tuam sponden' mihi uxorem dari? Ch. Spondeo. Ca. Et ego spondeo idem hoc, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 38 sq.; 2, 4, 172: Me. Etiam mihi despondes filiam? Eu. Illis legibus, Cum illā dote quam tibi dixi. Me. Sponden' ergo? Eu. Spondeo, id. Aul. 2, 2, 78: Ph. Spondesne, miles, mi hanc uxorem? Th. Spondeo. Ph. Et ego huic victum spondeo, id. Curc. 5, 2, 73 sq.: sponden tu ergo tuam gnatam uxorem mihi? Ch. Spondeo et mille auri Philippum dotis, id. Trin. 5, 2, 34.—Hence, of women, alicui sponsam esse, to be betrothed, engaged to a man: si volt Demipho Dare quantum ab hac accipio, quae sponsa est mihi, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 52: scis, sponsam mihi (esse)? id. Eun. 5, 9 (8), 6; Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 101 sq.; 2, 4, 172; 2, 4, 174; id. Poen. 5, 3, 43.—

D. = sponsionem facere (v. sponsio, II.), to lay a judicial wager, to enter into an agreement to pay contingent on the truth or falsity of an assertion: si hoc ita est, qui spondet mille nummūm? P. Afric. ap. Gell. 6 (7), 11, 9.— So, absol.: cum illi jacenti latera tunderentur, ut aliquando spondere se diceret, should declare that he made the required wager, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, 142 (cf. sponsum, P. a. fin. infra); Dig. 11, 5, 3.—

II. In gen., to promise sacredly, to warrant, vow (class.).

1. With fut. inf.: promitto, recipio, spondeo, C. Caesarem talem semper fore civem, qualis hodie sit, Cic. Phil. 5, 18, 51: ut (eum) inimicissimum huic conjurationi futurum esse, promittam et spondeam, id. Mur. 41, 90: et ipse spondeo et omnes hoc tibi tui pro me recipient, te fructum esse capturum, etc., id. Fam. 13, 50, 2: quis est qui spondeat eundum, si differtur bellum, animum postea fore, Liv. 5, 5, 9: quae si perpetua concordia sit, quis non spondere ausit, maximum hoc imperium brevi futurum esse? id. 5, 3, 10: spondebant animis id (bellum) P. Cornelium finiturum, with full conviction, id. 28, 38, 9; cf. id. 3, 59, 3: sponde affore reges, Val. Fl. 3, 504.—

2. With inf. pres., to warrant, give assurance of an existing fact: spondebo enim tibi, vel potius spondeo in meque recipio, eos esse M'. Curii mores, Cic. Fam. 13, 17, 2.—

3. With acc. of thing (and often dat. pers.): quibus cum consulem suum reliquissent, honores et praemia spopondistis, Cic. Phil. 5, 11, 28: mihi sex menses sati' sunt vitae, septimum Orco spondeo, Poët. ap. Cic. Fin. 2, 7, 22: ea spondent, confirmant, quae, quidem mihi exploratiora essent, si remansissem, Cic Att. 11, 6, 3: quod ego non modo de me tibi spondere possum, sed de te etiam mihi, id. Fam. 15, 21, 1: ac de infante (Tiberio) Scribonius mathematicus praeclara spopondit, Suet. Tib. 14: tantum sibi vel de viribus suis, vel de fortunā spondentes, Just. 3, 4, 1; Amm. 24, 1, 8: illius et dites monitis spondentibus Indi, Val. Fl. 6, 117: non si mihi Juppiter auctor Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere caelo, Verg. A. 5, 18: spondere fidem, Ov. M. 10, 395: officium Amori, id. ib. 10, 418.—

4. Transf., of inanim. or abstract subjects (mostly poet. and post-Aug.): nec quicquam placidum spondentia Martis Sidera presserunt, Ov. Ib. 217: quod prope diem futurum spondet et virtus et fortuna vestra, Liv. 7, 30, 8: eorum hominum erat, qui, quantum spes spopondisset, cuperent, ni, etc., id. 45, 19, 7: magna de illo (Philippo) spes fuit propter ipsius ingenium, quod magnum spondebat virum, Just. 7, 6, 1.— Hence, sponsus, a, um, P. a., promised, engaged, betrothed, affianced; substt,

A. sponsus, i, m., a betrothed man, a bridegroom: virgo Sponso superba, Titin. ap. Non. 305, 5: accede ad sponsum audacter, id. ib. 227, 15; Cic. Inv. 2, 26, 78: sponsus regius, Hor. C. 3, 2, 10.—Poet., of Penelope's suitors, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 28.—

B. spon-sa, ae, f., a betrothed woman, a bride: scio equidem, sponsam tibi esse et filium ex sponsā tuā, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 12; Ter. And. 2, 1, 24: flebilis sponsa, Hor. C. 4, 2, 21 et saep.—Prov.: suam cuique sponsam, mihi meam, i. e. every one to his taste, Atil. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 20, 3.—

C. sponsum, i, n., a covenant, agreement, engagement: sponsum negare, to break or disown one's pledge, Hor. S. 1, 3, 95: sponsus contra sponsum rogatus, Varr. L. L. 7, 107 Müll.—

(b). Esp., a judicial wager (cf. sponsio, II.): ex sponso egit, Cic. Quint. 9, 32.