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sto, stĕti, stătum, 1 (scanned stĕtĕrunt, Verg. A. 2, 774; 3, 48; Ov. H. 7, 166; Prop. 2, 8, 10), v. n. [root sta-; Sanscr. sthā, sthalam, locus; Gr. στα-, ἵστημι, to set, place; στατήρ, weight; O. H. Germ. stām; Goth. standa; Engl. stand], to stand, in opposition to sitting, walking, or lying prostrate, to stand still, remain standing, stand upright.

I. Lit.

A. In gen.: hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, Illi qui astant, hi stant ambo, non sedent, Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.; cf.: cum virgo staret et Caecilia in sellā sederet, Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104: si iste ibit, ito: stabit, astato simul, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 74: abi intro, noli stare, id. Mil. 4, 3, 36; so (opp. ire) id. Merc. 3, 3, 21; id. Mil. 4, 2, 95; 4, 9, 10; id. Pers. 3, 3, 43; 4, 4, 50; Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 6; 3, 2, 12: i: quid stas, lapis? id. Heaut. 4, 7, 3: ante aedes, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 56; 1, 1, 250; 2, 2, 35; id. Truc. 2, 3, 14: ante ostium, Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 4; id. And. 3, 1, 17; id. Hec. 3, 4, 14; 5, 4, 14: ante oculos, Ov. Am. 1, 5, 17: ad januam, Cic. de Or. 2, 86, 353: ad undam, Verg. G. 4, 356: orantem juxta, Stat. Th. 11, 618: hic foris, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 12: hinc procul, Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 1: propter in occulto, Cic. Clu. 28, 78; cf.: qui proximi steterant, Caes. B. G. 5, 35, 3: propius, Hor. A. P. 361: sta ilico, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 18: qui frequentissimi in gradibus concordiae steterunt, Cic. Phil. 7, 8, 21: stans pede in uno, Hor. S. 1, 4, 10 et saep.—Of things: ita statim stant signa, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 120: quorum statuae steterunt in Rostris, Cic. Phil. 9, 2, 4: statua, id. Div. 1, 34, 75: signa ad impluvium, ad valvas Junonis, id. Verr. 2, 1, 23, 61: stabat acuta silex, Verg. A. 8, 233: columna, Hor. C. 1, 35, 14: cerea effigies, id. S. 1, 8, 32; cf. poet.: aeneus ut stes, id. ib. 2, 3, 183.— Pass. impers.: Ps. Statur hic ad hunc modum. Sim. Statum vide hominis, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 44: Gn. Quid agitur? Pa. Statur, Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40: confecto munerum cursu moriar stando, Amm. 24, 3, 7.—Prov.: inter sacrum saxumque sto, nec quid faciam scio, i.e. I am in a pinch, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 84; v. sacrum.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn., to stand firm or immovable; to last, remain, continue: cui nec arae patriae domi stant; fractae et disjectae jacent, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 115 Vahl.): nec domus ulla nec urbs stare poterit, Cic. Lael. 7, 23: stantibus Hierosolymis, id. Fl. 28, 69: ut praeter spem stare muros viderunt, Liv. 38, 5: urbem innoxiam stare incolumem pati, id. 31, 31, 15: hasta, quae radice novā, non ferro stabat adacto, stuck fast, remained fixed, Ov. M. 15, 562: missum stetit inguine ferrum, id. ib. 5, 132; cf. id. ib. 5, 34; 8, 415: stat glacies iners, Hor. C. 2, 9, 5: aquae, Ov. M. 4, 732: longā stare senectā, Sil. 3, 94: cornus stetit inter tempora frontis, id. 4, 142.—

2. To remain, tarry, linger any where (cf. moror): paulisper stetimus in illā ganearum tuarum nidore atque fumo, Cic. Pis. 6, 13: hos quos video volitare in foro, quos stare ad curiam, id. Cat. 2, 3, 5: cur non aut stantem comprehenderint, aut fugientem consecuti sint, remaining in the city, id. Cael, 28, 67; so (opp. fugio), id. Tusc. 2, 23, 54: cum gladiis in conspectu senatus, id. Phil. 2, 4, 8: qui domi stare non poterant, id. Fl. 6, 13: (meretrix) olente in fornice stans, Hor. S. 1, 2, 30; cf. Ov. Am. 1, 10, 21; Juv. 10, 239; cf. of minerals not attracted by the magnet: pondere enim fretae partim stant, quod genus aurum, Lucr. 6, 1058. —

3. In milit. lang.

a. To stand in the ranks or under arms, to fight: quisque uti steterat, jacet obtinetque ordinem, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 86: ut sustinere corpora plerique nequeuntes arma sua quisque stantes incumberet, Sall. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 9, 229 (H. 3, 72 Dietsch): cum milites a mane diei jejuni sub armis stetissent defatigati, Auct. B. Afr. 42, 3: primo haud impari stetere acie, Liv. 26, 44: in Asia totius Asiae steterunt vires, id. 37, 58: in acie, Auct. B. Hisp. 28 fin.: pars acie stabat, Auct. B. Afr. 51, 6: stetit acies in armis, Sen. Phoen. 389; cf.: stetit ordine certo Infelix acies, Luc. 7, 2, 16.—

b. Pregn., to stand firm in fight, stand one's ground, maintain the contest (opp. abjecto scuto fugere), Cic. Tusc. 2, 23, 54; cf.: in acie stare ac pugnare (opp. in castra refugere), Liv. 22, 60, 25: Tarquiniensis, novus hostis non stetit solum, sed etiam ab suā parte Romanum pepulit, id. 2, 6, 11: comminus, Caes. B. C. 1, 47: inque gradu stetimus, certi non cedere, Ov. M. 9, 43; cf.: contra leonem, Spart. Carac. 5.—

c. Transf., of a battle, to last, hold out, continue (a favorite expression of Livy): ibi aliquamdiu atrox pugna stetit, Liv. 29, 2: diu pugna neutro inclinata stetit, id. 27, 2: ita anceps dicitur certamen stetisse, id. 8, 38: primo stetit ambiguā spe pugna, id. 7, 7.—

4. Nautical t. t., to lie, to lie or ride at anchor: ante hostium portus in salo stare, Liv. 37, 16; Auct. B. Afr. 62: naves regiae in sinu Maliaco, Liv. 36, 20: classis instructa in portu, id. 37, 11: classis in salo ad Leptim, Auct. B. Afr. 62, 4: litore puppes, Verg. A. 6, 901.—

5. Of servants, to stand, wait, attend (very rare): neque pueri eximiā facie stabant, C. Gracch. ap. Gell. 15, 12, 2: sto exspectans, si quid mihi imperent, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 46: ad cyathum et vinum, Suet. Caes. 49; cf.: ad pedes, id. Galb. 22.—

6. Of buildings, cities, etc., to stand finished, be erected (mostly poet.): intra annum nova urbs stetit, Liv. 6, 4, 6: jam stabant Thebae, Ov. M. 3, 131: moenia jam stabant, id. F. 3, 181: stet Capitolium Fulgens, Hor. C. 3, 3, 42: aedificant muros ... Stabat opus, Ov. M. 11, 205: jam stare ratem, Val. Fl. 1, 96.—

7. Of the countenance, to be unmoved, to be at rest (poet.): stat num quam facies, Luc. 5, 214: stant ora metu, are rigid, Val. Fl. 4, 639; cf.: cur ad patrios non stant tua lumina vultus, Stat. Th. 10, 693.—

8. To stand up, stand upright, stand on end; to bristle up, stiffen, etc. (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): papillae, Lucil. ap. Non. 391, 26: mammae, Plin. 28, 19, 77, 249: steterunt comae, Verg. A. 2, 774; 3, 48; Ov. M. 7, 631; cf. id. ib. 10, 425: crines fulvi pulvere, Stat. Th. 3, 326: setae, Ov. M. 8, 286: in vertice cristae, id. ib. 6, 672: aristae, id. ib. 10, 655: stantes oculi, prominent, Ov. F. 6, 133: oculis rigentibus et genis stantibus, fixed, Plin. 23, 1, 24, 49. —In mal. part., Mart. 3, 73, 2; App. M. 2, p. 117, 39; Auct. Priap. 75, 2.—Rarely of fluids, to coagulate, stiffen: sanguis stetit, Sen. Oedip. 585.—

9. With abl., to stand out with, be thick with, full of any thing (mostly poet.): stant pulvere campi, Enn. ap. Porphyr. ad Hor. C. 1, 9, 1 (Ann. v. 592 Vahl.): cupressi Stant rectis foliis, id. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 2, 444 (Ann. v. 268 ib.): stat sentibu' fundus, Lucil. ap. Don. Ter. And. 4, 2, 16; Titin. ap. Non. 391, 21; so, ager sentibus, Caecil. ib. 391, 23: vides ut altā stet nive candidum Soracte, Hor. C. 1, 9, 1: caelum caligine stat, Sisenn. ap. Non. 392, 8: pulvere caelum, Verg. A. 12, 408: pulvereo globo astra, Stat. Th. 7, 124: stant lumina (Charontis) flammā, Verg. A. 6, 300: stant pulvere Syrtes, Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 257.

II. Trop.

A. In gen., to stand: mentes, rectae quae stare solebant, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 6, 16 (Ann. v. 208 Vahl.): stetisse ipsum in fastigio eloquentiae, Quint. 12, 1, 20.—

B. In partic.

1. Pregn., to stand one's ground, stand firm or unshaken; to endure, persevere, persist, abide, continue: moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque, Enn. ap. Aug. Civ. Dei, 2, 21 (Ann. v. 492 Vahl.): disciplinam militarem, quā stetit ad hanc diem Romana res, solvisti, Liv. 8, 7: res publica staret, Cic. Phil. 2, 10, 24; cf. id. Cat. 2, 10, 21: stante urbe et curiā, id. Planc. 29, 71: ut eo neglecto civitas stare non possit, id. Cael. 1, 1: utinam res publica stetisset, quo coeperat statu, id. Off. 2, 1, 3: qui illam (rem publicam) cadere posse stante me non putārant, id. Fam. 6, 6, 2: ut stante re publicā facere solebamus, id. Off. 2, 1, 3: neque enim aliter stare possemus, id. Sest. 45, 97: per quos homines ordinesque steterim, quibusque munitus fuerim, non ignoras, id. Fam. 13, 29, 7; cf.: eorum auxilio, qui me stante stare non poterant, id. ib. 7, 2, 3: respublica stetit virtute tuā, Liv. 4, 40: stetit regnum puero, id. 1, 3: dum stetimus, Ov. Tr. 1, 9, 17: stamus animis, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2: stas animo, Hor. S. 2, 3, 213: Gabinium sine provinciā stare non posse, could not hold out, subsist, Cic. Pis. 6, 12; cf. id. Fl. 6, 14; Suet. Oth. 5: nedum sermonum stet honos, Hor. A. P. 69.—Hence, nearly—esse, tantā stat praedita culpā (natura), Lucr. 5, 199: pausam stare fragori, id. 1, 747.—

b. (Acc. to its use as a milit. t. t., v. supra, I. B. 3.) To maintain the contest: cum in senatu pulcherrime staremus, Cic. Fam. 1, 4, 1.—

c. Stare in aliquā re, simply aliquā re, and post-class. also alicui rei, to stand firm, persist, persevere; to rest, abide, adhere to, continue in a thing.

(a). In aliquā re: si in fide non stetit, Cic. Rab. Perd. 10, 28: sin in eo non stat, id. Att. 2, 4, 1: stare oportet in eo, quod sit judicatum, id. Fin. 1, 14, 47: in sententiā, Liv. 4, 44.—

(b). With abl.: eā omnes stant sententiā, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 35: suis stare judiciis, Cic. Tusc. 5, 28, 81: censoris opinione, id. Clu. 47, 132: alicujus decreto, Caes. B. G. 6, 13: stare conditionibus, Cic. Att. 7, 15, 2: stare conventis, id. Off. 3, 25, 95: stare jurejurando, Quint. 5, 6, 4: nihil quo stat loco stabit, omnia sternet abducetque vetustas, Sen. ad Marc. 26, 4.—Pass. impers.: stabitur consilio, Liv. 7, 35: etsi priore foedere staretur, id. 21, 19: famā rerum standum est, id. 7, 6.—

(g). With dat.: arbitri sententiae stare, Dig. 4, 7, 23 fin.: voluntati patris, ib. 26, 7, 3; 36, 3, 6: rei judicatae, ib. 42, 1, 32: emptioni, ib. 19, 1, 13; ib. 4, 8, 27 (five times) et saep.—

(d). Stat sententia, aliquid, or, impersonally, stat (alicui), the determination stands or holds good; I (thou, he, etc.) am determined: Pa. Vide quid agas. Ph. Stat sententia, Ter. Eun. 2, 1, 18: Hannibal, postquam ipsi sententia stetit, pergere ire, Liv. 21, 30: stat sententia tradere mecum Dotalem patriam, Ov. M. 8, 67: modo nobis stet illud, unā vivere in studiis nostris, Cic. Fam. 9, 2, 5: stat pectore fixum, Aeetae sociare manus, Val. Fl. 5, 289: nos in Asiam convertemus: neque adhuc stabat, quo potissimum, Cic. Att. 3, 14, 2: mihi stat alere morbum, Nep. Att. 21, 6: quos ut seponi stetit, Sil. 3, 68: stat, casus renovare omnes, Verg. A. 2, 750. —

d. In aliquā re, or simply aliquā re, to rest on, be fixed on, depend upon, etc.: omnis in Ascanio stat cura parentis, Verg. A. 1, 646: regnum fraternā stare concordiā, Liv. 45, 19: quā (disciplinā) stetit Romana res, id. 8, 7: hac arte (i.e. bello) in patriā steti, id. 5, 44, 2; Val. Fl. 3, 673; Verg. A. 2, 163: magis famā quam vi stare res suas, Tac. A. 6, 30: apud quos virtute quam pecuniā res Romana melius stetit, id. H. 2, 69 fin.: famā bella stare, Curt. 3, 8, 7.—

2. In theatr. lang., of plays and actors, to stand, i.e. to please, take, succeed: quod si intellegeret, cum stetit olim nova (fabula), Actoris operā magis stetisse quam suā, Ter. Phorm. prol. 9 sq.: partim vix steti, id. Hec. prol. alt. 7: securus, cadat an recto stat fabula talo, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 176: illi, scripta quibus comoedia prisca viris est, Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi, id. S. 1, 10, 17.—

3. Stare, ab, cum, or pro aliquo, or aliquā re, or with adv. loci, to stand by, on the side of, adhere to a person or thing, take the part of: ut nemo contra civium perditorum dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causā steterit constantius, Cic. Brut. 79, 273: a se potius quam ab adversariis, id. Inv. 1, 43, 81: a mendacio contra verum, id. ib. 1, 3, 4: a contrariā ratione, Auct. Her. 4, 2, 4: cum di prope ipsi cum Hannibale starent, Liv. 26, 41, 17; 5, 38: stabat cum eo senatus majestas, id. 8, 34, 1: nobiscum adversus bar, baros, Nep. Ages. 5, 4: si pro meā patriā ista virtus staret, Liv. 2, 12: pro jure gentium, id. 38, 25: pro vobis adversus reges stetimus, id. 45, 22, 10; 23, 8, 3 Fabri ad loc.: pro Jubā atque Afris, Quint. 11, 1, 80: pro signis, Ov. A. A. 1, 200: quamvis duces non essent praesentes, staret tamen pro partibus invicta fortuna ultoris, Flor. 4, 7, 10: hic primo pro Pompei partibus, mox simulatione contra Pompeium stetit, Vell. 2, 48, 4: voluptas pro iisdem partibus standi, Sen. Vit. Beat. 4, 1; cf.: et dii quoque pro meliore stant causā, Curt. 4, 1, 13: hinc stas, illinc causam dicis, Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 48: unde stetisset, eo se victoria transferret, Just. 5, 4, 12: non semper vostra evortet: nunc Juppiter hac stat, stands at your side, stands by you, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565.—So with in: Graeci, qui in Darei partibus steterant, Curt. 3, 11, 18.—

4. Stare per aliquem, to stand to one's account, be chargeable or owing to one; to lie at one's door, be one's fault; followed by a negative consequence or effect, expressed by quin, quominus, or ne.

(a). With quin: quoniam per eum non stetisset, quin praestaretur, etc., Liv. 2, 31, 11 Weissenb.ad loc.—

(b). With quominus (freq.): si poterit fieri, ut ne pater per me stetisse credat, Quominus haec fierent nuptiae, volo: sed si id non poterit, Id faciam in proclivi quod est, per me stetisse, ut credat, Ter. And. 4, 2, 16 sq.: Caesar ubi cognovit per Afranium stare, quominus proelio dimicaretur, Caes. B. C. 1, 41: graviter eam rem tulerunt, quod stetisse per Trebonium, quominus oppido potirentur, videbatur, id. ib. 2, 13; so, nec, quominus perpetua cum eis amicitia esset, per populum Romanum stetisse, Liv. 8, 2, 2; 9, 14, 1; 6, 33, 2; 44, 14, 12.—

(g). With ne: ne praestaremus per vos stetit, qui, etc., Liv. 45, 23, 6: non per milites stetisse, ne vincerent, id. 3, 61, 2: quasi per ipsum staret, ne redderetur, Suet. Aug. 28.—Rarely without the negation; so with ut: per quam (ignorantiam) stetit, ut tibi obligarer, Plin. Ep. 10, 6 (22), 2; cf. Ter. And. 4, 2, 17 supra; absol.: id est, non per me stetit, sed per illud, Quint. 3, 6, 78; with subj.-clause: si per eum non stetit, parere defuncti voluntati, Dig. 32, 1, 36.—

5. Of price, to stand one in, to come to, to cost (mostly post-Aug.): Periclum vitae meae tuo stat periculo, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 82: Polybius scribit, centum talentis eam rem Achaeis stetisse, Liv. 34, 50; cf.: sit argumento tibi gratis stare navem, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 19, 48: haud illi stabunt Aeneia parvo Hospitia, Verg. A. 10, 494: quae neque magno Stet pretio, Hor. S. 1, 2, 122: multo sanguine ac vulneribus ea Poenis victoria stetit, Liv. 23, 30: haud scio an magno detrimento certamen staturum fuerit, id. 3, 60: utrique vindicta libertatis morte stetit, Vell. 2, 64, 3: heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis? Ov. F. 2, 812 et saep.: nulla pestis humano generi pluris stetit, Sen. Ira, 1, 2, 1.