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sŭb (on the form sus from subs v. infra, III.), prep. with acc. and abl. [perh. for es-ub, ens-ub, = ἐνς (εις) and ὑπό; Sanscr. upa; cf. Curt. Gr. Etym. p. 290], under.

I. With abl., to point out the object under which a thing is situated or takes place (Gr. ὑπό, with dat. or gen.), under, below, beneath, underneath.

A. Of space: si essent, qui sub terrā semper habitavissent ... nec tamen exissent umquam supra terram, Cic. N. D. 2, 37, 95; Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 72: sub aquā, id. Cas. 2, 6, 28: sub vestimentis, id. Ep. 2, 2, 32; Liv. 1, 58; cf.: saepe est sub palliolo sordido sapientia, Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 23, 56: ingenium ingens Inculto latet hoc sub corpore, Hor. S. 1, 3, 34: sub pellibus hiemare, Caes. B. C. 3, 13, 5; cf. Liv. 23, 18, 15: manet sub Jove frigido Venator, Hor. C. 1, 1, 25: sub divo moreris, id. ib. 2, 3, 23: vitam sub divo agat, id. ib. 3, 2, 5 (v. divus, II.): sub terrā vivi demissi sunt, Liv. 22, 57: sub hoc jugo dictator Aequos misit, id. 3, 28, 11: pone (me) sub curru nimium propinqui Solis, Hor. C. 1, 22, 21 et saep.— Trop.: non parvum sub hoc verbo furtum latet, Cic. Agr. 3, 3, 12.—

2. Transf., of lofty objects, at the foot of which, or in whose immediate neighborhood, any thing is situated, under, below, beneath, at the foot of, at, by, near, before: sub monte consedit, Caes. B. G. 1, 48; so, sub monte considere, id. ib. 1, 21: sub colle constituere, id. ib. 7, 49: sub montis radicibus esse, id. ib. 7, 36 al.: sub ipsis Numantiae moenibus, Cic. Rep. 1, 11, 17: est ager sub urbe, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 107; so, sub urbe, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 26; Varr. R. R. 1, 50, 2; Hor. C. 3, 19, 4: sub Veteribus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 19: sub Novis, Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266 Orell. N. cr.; id. Ac. 2, 22, 70 Goer. N. cr.; cf. Varr. L. L. 6, 59 Müll.: sub basilicā, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 11 et saep.—Trop.: sub oculis domini suam probare operam studebant, Caes. B. C. 1, 57 fin.: omnia sub oculis erant, Liv. 4, 28; cf. Vell. 2, 21, 3: classem sub ipso ore urbis incendit, Flor. 2, 15.—

B. Of time, in, within, during, at, by: ne sub ipsā profectione milites oppidum irrumperent, Caes. B. C. 1, 27: sub decessu suo, Hirt. B. G. 8, 49: sub luce, Ov. M. 1, 494; Hor. A. P. 363; Liv. 25, 24: sub eodem tempore, Ov. F. 5, 491: sub somno, Cels. 3, 18 med. al.—

C. In other relations, where existence under or in the immediate vicinity of any thing may be conceived.

1. Under, in rank or order; hence, next to, immediately after: Euryalumque Helymus sequitur; quo deinde sub ipso Ecce volat calcemque terit jam calce Diores, Verg. A. 5, 322.—

2. In gen., of subjection, domination, stipulation, influence, effect, reason, etc., under, beneath, with: omnes ordine sub signis ducam legiones meas, under my standards, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 71: sub armis vitam cernere, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, 81 Müll. (Trag. v. 297 Vahl.); so, sub armis, Caes. B. C. 1, 41; 1, 42: sub sarcinis, id. B. G. 2, 17; 3, 24: sub onere, id. B. C. 1, 66 et saep.—

3. Trop., under, subject to, in the power of; during, in the time of, upon, etc.: sub Veneris regno vapulo, non sub Jovis, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 13: sub regno esse, Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60: sub imperio alicujus esse, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 4: sub dicione atque imperio alicujus esse, Caes. B. G. 1, 31; Auct. B. Alex. 66, 6; Sall. J. 13, 1; Nep. Con. 4, 4; id. Eum. 7, 1; cf.: sub Corbulone Armenios pellere, Tac. H. 3, 24: sub manu alicujus esse, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 2; sub rege, Cic. Rep. 2, 23, 43; Hor. C. 3, 5, 9: sub Hannibale, Liv. 25, 40: sub dominā meretrice, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 25: sub nutrice, id. ib. 2, 1, 99: sub judice lis est, id. A. P. 78: praecipua sub Domitiano miseriarum pars erat, during the reign of, Tac. Agr. 45: scripsit sub Nerone novissimis annis, Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 5: gnarus sub Nerone temporum, Tac. Agr. 6; Suet. Tit. 8 et saep.: sub vulnere, from the effects of the wound, Ov. M. 5, 62; cf.: sub judice, under, id. ib. 13, 190: nullo sub indice, forced by no betrayer, id. ib. 13, 34.—So in certain phrases where the simple abl. is more freq.: sub pacto abolitionis dominationem deponere, Quint. 9, 2, 97: sub condicione, Liv. 6, 40, 8 Weissenb. ad loc.: sub condicionibus, id. 21, 12, 4: sub eā condicione, ne cui fidem meam obstringam, Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 11: sub eā condicione, si esset, etc., id. ib. 8, 18, 4; so, sub condicione, ut (ne, si, etc.), Suet. Tib. 44; 13; id. Caes. 68; id. Claud. 24; id. Vit. 6: sub specie (= specie, or per speciem): sub specie infidae pacis quieti, Liv. 9, 45, 5; 36, 7, 12; 44, 24, 4: sub tutelae specie, Curt. 10, 6, 21; Sen. Ben. 1, 4, 2; cf.: sub nomine pacis bellum latet, Cic. Phil. 12, 7, 17: sub alienis auspiciis rem gerere, Val. Max. 3, 2, 6: sub lege, ne, Suet. Aug. 21: sub exceptione, si, id. Caes. 78: sub poenā mortis, id. Calig. 48: servitutis, id. Tib. 36 et saep.: sub frigido sudore mori, Cels. 5, 26, 31 fin.

II. With acc., to point out the object under which a thing comes, goes, extends, etc. (Gr. ὑπό, with acc.), under, below, beneath.

A. Of space, usually with verbs of motion: et datores et factores omnes subdam sub solum, Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 18: manum sub vestimenta deferre, id. Bacch. 3, 3, 78: cum tota se luna sub orbem solis subjecisset, Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25: exercitum sub jugum mittere, Caes. B. G. 1, 7; 1, 12; Sall. J. 38, 9 Dietsch ad loc.: sub furcam ire, Hor. S. 2, 7, 66: sub divum rapere, id. C. 1, 18, 13: sub terras ire, Verg. A. 4, 654. —Trop.: sub judicium sapientis et delectum cadunt, Cic. Fin. 3, 18, 61: quae sub sensus subjecta sunt, id. Ac. 2, 23, 74: quod sub aurium mensuram aliquam cadat, id. Or. 20, 67: columbae Ipsa sub ora viri venere, Verg. A. 6, 191: quod sub oculos venit, Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 6.—Rarely with verb of rest: quidquid sub Noton et Borean hominum sumus, Luc. 7, 364.—

2. Transf. (cf. supra, I. A. 2.), of lofty objects, to the foot of which, or into whose immediate neighborhood, any thing comes, or near to which it extends, under, below, beneath, to, near to, close to, up to, towards, etc.: sub montem succedunt milites, Caes. B. C. 1, 45: sub ipsum murum fons aquae prorumpebat, Hirt. B. G. 8, 41: missi sunt sub muros, Liv. 44, 45: Judaei sub ipsos muros struxere aciem, Tac. H. 5, 11; 3, 21: aedes suas detulit sub Veliam, Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 54: arat finem sub utrumque colonus, Hor. S. 2, 1, 35: jactatus amnis Ostia sub Tusci, id. ib. 2, 2, 33: (hostem) mediam ferit ense sub alvum, Ov. M. 12, 389: sub orientem secutus Armenios, Flor. 3, 5.—

B. Of time, denoting a close approximation.

1. Before, towards, about, shortly before, up to, until: Pompeius sub noctem naves solvit, Caes. B. C. 1, 28; so, sub noctem, Verg. A. 1, 662; Hor. C. 1, 9, 19; id. S. 2, 1, 9; 2, 7, 109; id. Ep. 2, 2, 169: sub vesperum, Caes. B. G. 2, 33; id. B. C. 1, 42: sub lucem, id. B. G. 7, 83; Verg. G. 1, 445: sub lumina prima, Hor. S. 2, 7, 33: sub tempus edendi, id. Ep. 1, 16, 22: sub dies festos, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 1: sub galli cantum, Hor. S. 1, 1, 10: usque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbrem, Verg. G. 1, 211: simulacra Visa sub obscurum noctis, id. ib. 1, 478: prima vel autumni sub frigora, id. ib. 2, 321: quod (bellum) fuit sub recentem pacem, Liv. 21, 2, 1.—

2. After, immediately after, just after, immediately upon: sub eas (litteras) statim recitatae sunt tuae, Cic. Fam. 10, 16, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 4, 4: sub haec dicta omnes procubuerunt, Liv. 7, 31: sub adventum praetoris, id. 23, 15, 1; 23, 16, 3; 45, 10, 10: sub hanc vocem fremitus variantis multitudinis fuit, id. 35, 31: sub hoc erus inquit, hereupon, Hor. S. 2, 8, 43.—

C. In other relations, in which a coming under any thing may be conceived: lepide hoc succedit sub manus negotium, comes to hand, convenient, Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 59: sub manus succedere, id. ib. 4, 4, 7; id. Pers. 4, 1, 2: sub manum submittere, at hand, convenient, Auct. B. Afr. 36, 1: sub ictum venire, Liv. 27, 18: sub manum annuntiari, Suet. Aug. 49 (al. sub manu; cf. supra, I. C.): sub legum et judiciorum potestatem cadere, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 55, 144: sub populi Romani imperium dicionemque cadere, id. Font. 5, 12 (1, 2): incolas sub potestatem Atheniensium redigere, Nep. Milt. 1: matrimonium vos sub legis superbissimae vincula conicitis, Liv. 4, 4: sub unum fortunae ictum totas vires regni cadere pati, Curt. 3, 8, 2.—

III. In composition, the b remains unchanged before vowels and before b, d, j, l, n, s, t, v. Before m and r it is frequently, and before the remaining consonants, c, f, g, p, it is regularly assimilated. Yet here the MSS. vary, as in ob, ad, in, etc. Before some words commencing with c. p, t, it assumes the form sus, by the rejection of the b from a collateral form subs (analog. to abs); e. g. suscipio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, sustuli, sustollo. Before s, with a following consonant, there remains merely su in the words suspicio, suspicor, suspiro; cf., however: substerno, substituo, substo, substruo al.; v. esp. Neue, Formenl. 2, 775 sqq.—

B. In composition, sub denotes,

1. Lit., a being situated or contained under, a putting or bringing under, or a going in under any thing: subaeratus, subcavus; subdo, subigo, subicio; subhaereo, subaperio; subedo.—

2. Hence, also, a concealing or being concealed behind something; a secret action: subnoto, surripio, suffuror, subausculto, suborno. —

3. Transf., a being placed or ranked under: subcenturio, subcurator, subcustos, etc.; or a being or doing any thing in a lower or inferior degree, a little, somewhat, rather, slightly: subabsurdus, subagrestis, subalbus, etc.; subaccusare, subirascor, etc.