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summa, ae, f. (sc. res; old gen. summai, Lucr. 1, 984; 6, 679) [summus, v. superus].

I. Lit., that which is highest in any thing, the top, summit, surface (postAug. and very rare): testudines evectae in summā pelagi, Plin. 9, 10, 12, 35 (cf. summus, I. s. v. superus).—

II. Transf., that which is most important or prominent in any thing, the main thing, chief point, principal matter; the sum, height, substance, summit, completion, perfection

A. In gen.: leges a me edentur non perfectae ... sed ipsae summae rerum atque sententiae, the main points, chief particulars, Cic. Leg. 2, 7, 18: cujus rei satis erit summam dixisse, id. Inv. 1, 20, 28: ex hac infinitā licentiā haec summa cogitur, ut, etc., id. Rep. 1, 43, 67: lectis rerum summis, Liv. 40, 29, 11: haec summa est, hic nostri nuntius esto, Verg. A. 4, 237: summa est, si curaveris, ut, etc., Cic. Fam. 13, 75, 2: in hoc summa judicii causaque tota consistit, id. Quint. 9, 32: eam ignominiam ad summam universi belli pertinere ratus, to the issue of the whole war, Liv. 32, 17, 3; cf.: haec belli summa nefandi, Verg. A. 12, 572: solus summam habet hic apud nos, the first place, pre-eminence, Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 15: qui vobis summam ordinis consiliique concedunt, Cic. Cat. 4, 7, 15: summam alicui rei dare, perfection, culmination, Quint. 3, 2, 1: 5, 10, 72; 11, 2, 41; 12, 1, 20: remittendo de summā quisque juris. strict or extreme right, Liv. 4, 43, 11.—

B. In partic.

1. Of a reckoning of numbers, the amount, the sum, sum total, including each of the single items, as if counted: quid, tu, inquam, soles, cum rationem a dispensatore accipis, si aera singula probasti, summam, quae ex his confecta sit, non probare? Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 193, 11: addendo deducendoque videre, quae reliqui summa fiat, id. Off. 1, 18, 59: Py. Quanta istaec hominum summa est? Ar. Septem milia, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 46: equitum magno numero ex omni populi summa separato, Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 39: subducamus summam, id. Att. 5, 21, 11: summam facere, id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, 131.—

2. Of money, a sum, amount.

(a). With pecuniae: pecuniae summam quantam imperaverit, parum convenit, Liv. 30, 16, 12: pecuniae etiam par prope summa fuit, id. 33, 23, 9: summa pecuniae signatae fuit talentūm duo milia et sexcenta, Curt. 3, 13, 16: accessit ad hanc pecuniae summam sex milia talantum, id. 5, 6, 10: pecuniae summa homines movit, Liv. 22, 61, 1; 38, 11, 8; 40, 46, 16; 42, 62, 14; cf.: census equestrem Summam nummorum, Hor. A. P. 384: ob parvam pecuniae summam erogatam, Val. Max. 4, 8, 1.—

(b). Without pecuniae: de summā nihil decedet, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 30: hac summā redempti, Liv. 32, 17, 2; 22, 61, 2: Marcellus decem pondo auri et argenti ad summam sestertii decies in aerarium rettulit, id. 45, 4, 1: quācumque summā tradet luxuriae domum, Phaedr. 4, 4, 44; creditor totius summae, Quint. 5, 10, 117: actor summarum, Suet. Dom. 11.—

3. Without reference to a count, the sum, the whole: de summā mali detrahere, Cic. Tusc. 3, 23, 55: summa cogitationum mearum omnium, id. Fam. 1, 9, 10: meorum maerorum atque amorum summam edictavi tibi, Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 2: ergo ex hac infinita licentiā haec summa cogitur, Cic. Rep. 1, 43, 67: proposita vitae ejus velut summa, Suet. Aug. 9: vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam, Hor. C. 1, 4, 15: summarum summa est aeterna, the sum of all sums, the sum of all things, i. e. the universe, Lucr. 5, 361; so, summa summarum, Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 4; Sen. Ep. 40, 13; and: summa summaï, Lucr 6, 679. —

4. Adverb.

(a). Ad summam, on the whole, generally, in short, in a word: ille affirmabat ... ad summam: non posse istaec sic abire, Cic. Att. 14, 1, 1; so, ad summam, id. ib. 7, 7, 7; id. Off. 1, 42, 149; id. Fam. 14, 14, 2; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106, Juv. 3, 79.—

(b). In summā, in all: Drusus erat de praevaricatione a tribunis aerariis absolutus, in summā quattuor sententiis, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 16, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 22, 6; 2, 11, 25: in omni summā, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5, 5

(g). In summā, at last, finally (post-Aug.): diu colluctatus est: in summā victus occumbit, Just. 13, 8, 8; 22, 1, 8; 37, 1, 8.—

C. Transf., the whole (opp. a part): magnam res diligentiam requirebat, non in summā exercitus tuenda, sed in singulis militibus conservandis, Caes. B. G. 6, 34; cf.: summa exercitus salva, the main body of the army, id. B. C. 1, 67: solet quaedam esse partium brevitas, quae longam tamen efficit summam, Quint. 4, 2, 41: quaedam partibus blandiuntur, sed in summam non consentiunt, id. 4, 2, 90.—

2. That which relates to the whole, as opp. to a part; with gen., the general, supreme: (Remi dicebant) ad hunc (regem) totius belli summam omnium voluntate deferri, the command in chief, Caes. B. G. 2, 4: neque de summā belli suum judicium sed imperatoris esse, id. ib. 1, 41: cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regem illum unum vocamus, authority over all affairs, the supreme power, Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 42: is, qui summam rerum administrabat, id. Rosc. Am. 32, 91: ad te summa solum, Phormio, rerum redit, Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 3: ad summam rerum consulere, for the general interest, Caes. B. C. 3, 51: ad discrimen summa rerum adducta, to a general engagement, Liv. 10, 27: discrimen summae rerum, id. 10, 14: quos penes summam consilii voluit esse, cum imperii summam rex teneret, the sole command, Cic. Rep. 2, 28, 51; cf.: qui vobis summam ordinis consiliique concedunt, id. Cat. 4, 7, 15: imperii, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; id. B. C. 3, 5: quod penes eos (Bituriges), si id oppidum retinuissent, summam victoriae constare intellegebant, the whole credit of the victory, id. B. G. 7, 21; so, victoriae, id. B. C. 1, 82.—Poet.: summa ducum, Atri des, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37.