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τᾰπεινός, ή, όν, low:

1. of Place, low-lying, χώρη Hdt.4.191, cf. Arist.Mete.352b32 (Comp.); νῆσος D.S.3.21; ταπεινὰ νέμεσθαι to live in low regions, Pi.N.3.82; τ. ἕζεσθαι E.Or.1411 (lyr.); ἡ μαῖα καθεζέσθω -οτέρα Sor.1.70a, cf. 2.61; of stature or size, low, ὀστᾶ X. Eq.1.4; τροχοί ib.10.6; of position in the body, τὰ τ. τοῦ θώρακος Gal.15.531; of a river, low, opp. μέγας, Plb.9.43.3; of stars, low, i.e. near the horizon, Cleom.1.5, al.; but also, near the earth, Id.2.5; of the sun, opp. ὑψηλός, Diog.Oen.8; λοξὸς καὶ τ. Gal.15.87.

2. of persons, humbled, abased in power, pride, etc., Hdt.7.14; σὺ δ' οὐδέπω τ. A.Pr.322, cf. 908; τ. παρέχειν τινά X.An.2.5.13; τά τοι μέγιστα πολλάκις θεὸς ταπείν' ἔθηκε E.Fr.716, cf. Hec.245, Andr.979; submissive, X.Hier.5.4 (Comp.), etc.; αἱ τ. τῶν πόλεων small, poor, weak, Isoc.4.95, cf. 7.7, X.Cyr.7.5.69 (Sup.); τ. δύναμις D.4.23; of low intelligence, αἱ τῶν ἀσυνέτων καὶ τ. ἀνθρώπων ψυχαί Gal. 19.220; τὴν μικρὰν καὶ τ. [ἰατρικὴν θεωρίαν] ὁ Ἱπποκράτης ηὔξησεν Id.16.550. Adv., ταπεινῶς (or ταπεινὰ) πράττειν to be in low estate or obscurity, Isoc.5.64, Plu.Thes.6; -νῶς ζῆν Philem.227; ὁμιλεῖν Arist.Pol. 1313b41.

3. of the spirits, downcast, dejected, διάνοια Th.2.61; τ. καὶ ἔρημοι συνεκάθηντο X.HG2.4.23, cf. 6.4.16.

4. in moral sense, either bad, mean, base, abject, τ. καὶ ἀνελεύθερος Pl.Lg.791d, cf. X.Mem.3.10.5, Isoc.2.34, etc.; or good, lowly, humble, Pl.Lg. 716a, X.Cyr.5.1.5, freq. in NT, Ev.Matt.11.29, 2 Ep.Cor.7.6, al.

5. of things, mean, low, poor, τ. καὶ ἄπορος δίαιτα Pl.Lg.762e, cf. Phld. Oec.p.48 J.: Sup., -οτάτη περίστασις Id.Vit.p.26 J.; θεωρία -οτέρα, opp. τιμιωτέρα, Arist.PA639a1; of style, low, poor, τ. λέξις, opp. κεκοσμημένη, Id.Rh.1404b6. Adv., -νῶς λέγειν in a submissive manner, ib.1408a19.