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tĕnĕo, tĕnŭi, tentum, 2 (perf. subj. tetinerim, Pac. ap. Non. 178, 15: tetinerit, Att. ib. 178, 12: tetinisse, Pac. ib. 178, 11; fut. perf. tetinero, acc. to Fest. p. 252 Müll. Another collat. form of the perf. tenivi, acc. to Charis. p. 220 P.; Diom. pp. 363 and 369 ib.), v. a. and n. [root ten-, tan-; Gr. τάνυμαι, τείνω; Sanscr. tanomi, to stretch, spread; this root appears in many derived meanings; cf. Lat.: tendo, tenuis, tener, tenor, tenus].

I. Act., to hold, keep, have in the hand, in the mouth, etc.

A. Lit.

1. In gen.: Eu. Porrige bracchium, prehende: jam tenes? Cha. Teneo. Eu. Tene, Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 42; cf. argentum, id. Pers. 3, 3, 9: cum pyxidem teneret in manu, Cic. Cael. 26, 63; for which: aliquid manu, Quint. 10, 7, 31; Ov. M. 11, 560; id. A. A. 1, 320; Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 34: aliquid dextrā, Ov. F. 1, 99: digitis, id. ib. 2, 102; id. M. 9, 86; 9, 522: lacertis, id. ib. 2, 100 al.: radicem ore, Cic. Div. 2, 68, 141: cibum ore, Phaedr. 1, 4, 6; for which: decoctum diu in ore, Plin. 25, 13, 105, 166: aliquem in sinu, Ov. H. 3, 114; for which: aliquem sinu, id. ib. 13, 157: flabellulum, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 50: facem, Verg. A. 6, 224: telum, Liv. 2, 19. — Prov.: manu tenere aliquid, to seize, grasp, or comprehend a thing which is palpable or evident: aliter leges, aliter philosophi tollunt astutias: leges, quātenus manu tenere possunt; philosophi, quātenus ratione et intellegentiā, Cic. Off. 3, 17, 68; cf.: cum res non conjecturā, sed oculis ac manibus teneretur, id. Clu. 7, 20. —

2. In partic.

a. With the accessory idea of possession, to hold, i. e. to be master of, have in one's power, possess, etc. (syn.: possideo, habeo): multa hereditatibus, multa emptionibus, multa dotibus tenebantur sine injuriā, Cic. Off. 2, 23, 81: quae tenuit dives Achaemenes, Hor. C. 2, 12, 21: Evander qui multis ante tempestatibus tenuerat loca, Liv. 1, 5: provinciam a praedonibus liberam, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 11, 32: colles praesidiis, Caes. B. C. 3, 43: Formiarum moenia et Lirim, Hor. C. 3, 17, 8: tenente Caesare terras, id. ib. 3, 14, 15: rem publicam, Cic. Mur. 39, 83; id. Sest. 19, 44: summam imperii, Caes. B. G. 3, 22: equitum centurias, Cic. Fam. 11, 16, 3: alterum cornu, to command, Nep. Pelop. 4, 3: provincias aliaque omnia, Sall. C. 39, 2: scenam, to have sole possession of. rule over, Suet. Tit. 7. — Of the possession of the object of affection: te tenet, Tib. 1, 6, 35; 2, 6, 52; Verg. E. 1, 32; Ov. H. 2, 103 Ruhnk.; 15, 88; id. Am. 3, 7, 3; Phaedr. 2, 2, 4.—In colloq. lang., teneo te, I have you once more, of again seeing the beloved person: teneone te, Antiphila, maxime animo exoptata meo? Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 27 Ruhnk.; Sen. Ben. 7, 4; Ov. H. 18, 183; cf.: et comitem Aenean juxta natumque tenebat Ingrediens, Verg. A. 8, 308.—Also like our I have you (fast, bound, etc.): teneo te, inquam, nam ista Academiae est propria sententia, Cic. Ac. 2, 48, 148; id. Quint. 20, 63.—Absol.: qui tenent (sc. rem publicam), who are in possession of the State, of public affairs: qui tenent, qui potiuntur, Cic. Att. 7, 12, 3; 2, 18, 1. —

b. With the accessory idea of firmness, persistence, to hold fast, occupy; to watch, guard, defend; to maintain, retain a thing: legio locum non tenuit atque in proximum collem se recepit, Caes. B. C. 1, 44: montes teneri, id. B. G. 3, 2: haec noctu firmis praesidiis tenebantur, id. ib. 7, 69: Capitolia celsa tenebat, Verg. A. 8, 653: quo teneam Protea nodo? Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 90: te neque intra Claustra tenebo, id. C. 3, 11, 44; cf.: in manicis et Compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo, id. Ep. 1, 16, 77: laqueis (se) sensit teneri ... fugam frustra tentabat; at illam Lenta tenet radix exsultantemque coërcet, Ov. M. 11, 74 sq.; 1, 535: Athenae tuae sempiternam in arce oleam tenere potuerunt, Cic. Leg. 1, 1, 2: agri qui diu aquam tenent, Pall. Apr. 2, 4: classem ibi tenebat, Liv. 31, 46, 8: secundissimo vento cursum tenere, to hold or keep one's course, Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 83; cf.: vento intermisso cursum non tenuit, Caes. B. G. 5, 8; 4, 28; so, cursum, Cic. Planc. 21, 52; id. Rep. 1, 2, 3 fin.; Quint. 4, 3, 13: quo iter, Verg. A. 1, 370; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 10: (lunam) fingunt cursus viam sub sole tenere, Lucr. 5, 714: tenuit tamen vestigia Bucar, Liv. 29, 32, 6.—

c. With the accessory idea of reaching the object aimed at, to reach, attain a place: montes effuso cursu Sabini petebant et pauci tenuere, Liv. 1, 37, 4: regionem, id. 30, 25, 11: Tenum, id. 36, 21, 1: terram, id. 37, 16, 4; 37, 11, 5; 37, 13, 4; 26, 29, 4: Hesperiam, Ov. F. 1, 498: portus, id. H. 18, 198; Tac. Agr. 38 fin.: cum quibus (navibus) Cythnum insulam tenuit, id. H. 2, 9.—

d. With the accessory idea of movement impeded, to hold fast, hold back, hinder, restrain, detain, check, control, stay, etc.: naves, quae vento tenebantur, Caes. B. G. 4, 22: quid hic agatur, scire poteris ex eo, qui litteras attulit, quem diutius tenui, quia, etc., Cic. Att. 11, 3, 1: si id te non tenet, advola, id. Fam. 16, 19: septimum jam diem Corcyrae tenebamur, id. ib. 16, 7 init.: Marcellum ab gerundis rebus valetudo adversa Nolae tenuit, Liv. 24, 20, 7: non tenebo te pluribus, Cic. Fam. 11, 16, 3; cf. absol.: ne diutius teneam, id. Verr. 2, 1, 13, 34: solutum (corpus) tenere, Cels. praef. med.; cf. ventrem, id. 4, 19 med.: tene linguam, Ov. F. 2, 602: pecus omne tenendum, Verg. G. 2, 371: vix a te videor posse tenere manus, Ov. Am. 1, 4, 10; so, manus, id. M. 13, 203; cf.: manum stomachumque teneto, Hor. S. 2, 7, 44: saeva tene cum Berecyntio Cornu tympana, id. C. 1, 18, 13: et Phoebi tenuere viam, i. e. impeded, closed up, Luc. 5, 136: quo me decet usque teneri? Verg. A. 5, 384: lacrimas, Caes. B. G. 1, 39; so, lacrimas in morte miserā non tenebamus, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 67, 172: dictator exercitum in stativis tenebat, Liv. 6, 14, 1. —

(b). Esp.: se tenere, to keep back, remain, stay: Sabinus castris sese tenebat, Caes. B. G. 3, 17; 1, 40; Liv. 2, 45, 2: nullā clade acceptā castris se pavidus tenebat, id. 3, 26, 3: Hasdrubal procul ab hoste intervallo tenebat se, id. 23, 26, 2: se domi a conventu remotum tenere, Nep. Dion, 9, 1: ego tamen teneo ab accusando vix me hercule: sed tamen teneo, restrain myself, refrain, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 2, 2: nec se tenuit, quin, etc., id. Ac. 2, 4, 12; cf. mid.: teneri non potui, quin tibi apertius illud idem his litteris declararem, id. Att. 15, 14, 2; Just. 6, 7, 10; cf.: se intra silentium tenuit, Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 8: multum me intra silentium tenui, id. ib. 7, 6, 6.—

B. Trop.

1. In gen., to hold, contain in the mind, to conceive, comprehend, know (syn.: percipio, intellego): nunc ego teneo, nunc scio, Quid sit hoc negotii, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 39: tenes Quorsum haec tendant quae loquor, id. Ps. 1, 2, 81: tenes, quid dicam? Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 22: teneo, I understand, id. And. 1, 1, 59: teneo quid erret, id. 3, 2, 18; Cic. Rep. 1, 23, 37; cf.: quibus capiatur Caesar, tenes, Caecin. ap. Cic. Fam. 6, 7, 5: quae a Romanis auguribus ignorantur, a Cilicibus ... Lyciis tenentur, Cic. Div. 1, 15, 25: quoniam ea, quae tenebatis ipsi, etiam ex me audire voluistis, id. Rep. 1, 46, 70: alicujus reconditos sensus, id. Sest. 10, 22: quo pacto cuncta tenerem, Hor. S. 2, 4, 8: et teneo melius ista, Mart. 4, 37, 7.—With inf.: nullus frugi esse homo potest, nisi qui et bene facere et male tenet, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 10; Lucr. 3, 647.—

2. In partic.

a. To have possession of, have the mastery of, to control any thing: cum rem publicam opes paucorum non virtutes tenere coeperunt, Cic. Rep. 1, 34, 51.—

b. To hold fast, guard, preserve, uphold, keep, insist (syn. servo): sin consuetudinem meam, quam in re publicā semper habui, tenuero, Cic. Phil. 1, 11, 27: ordinem, id. ib. 5, 13, 35: portum, id. Fam. 1, 9, 21: statum, id. Rep. 1, 28, 44: non tenebat ornatum suum civitas, id. ib. 1, 27, 43: si jus suum populi teneant, id. ib. 1, 32, 48: nec diutius umquam tenetur idem rei publicae modus, id. ib. 1, 44, 68: est boni viri, haec duo tenere in amicitiā, etc., id. Lael. 18, 65: morem, id. Off. 3, 10, 44; so id. Fl. 7, 15; Verg. A. 3, 408: foedus, Cic. Balb. 15, 34: tenebat non modo auctoritatem, sed etiam imperium in suos, id. Sen. 11, 37: silentium, Liv. 1, 28, 8.—

c. To hold fast, maintain, support, defend, uphold, insist: illud arcte tenent accurateque defendunt, voluptatem esse summum bonum, hold fast, maintain, Cic. Par. 1, 3, 14; cf.: illud, quod multos annos tenuisset, id. Ac. 2, 22, 71; and: quod idem Peripatetici non tenent, id. Fin. 3, 13, 44: propositum tenere, to maintain, Caes. B. C. 3, 42, 1: suas leges, Cic. Verr. 1, 4, 13: causam apud centumviros, id. Caecin. 24, 67: quo causae teste tenentur, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 43: locum quendam cum aliquo, Cic. Brut. 21, 81.— With ne: plebs tenuit, ne consules in proximum annum crearentur, Liv. 4, 30, 16: ne quid ferretur ad populum, patres tenuere, id. 3, 29, 8; 24, 19, 7. — With ut: tenuere patres, ut Fabius consul crearetur, Liv. 2, 42, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.: scripseram tenuisse Varenum ut sibi evocare testes liceret, Plin. Ep. 6, 5, 1.—

d. Of memory: alicujus memoriam cum summā benevolentiā tenere, to recollect, preserve a recollection of, Cic. Fam. 6, 2, 1.—Esp.: memoriā tenere: memoriā tenetis, compluris in Capitolio res de caelo esse percussas, you remember, Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 19; id. Fam. 1, 9, 12; Caes. B. G. 1, 14; cf.: memoriā teneo, C. Sulpicium Gallum, etc., id. Rep. 1, 14, 21; v. memoria; so without memoria, to bear in mind, remember, recollect: satin' haec meministi et tenes? Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 1: numeros memini, si verba tenerem, Verg. E. 9, 45: dicta tenere, Hor. A. P. 336; id. S. 2, 4, 8: quem (Cyrum) omnia militum tenuisse creditum est nomina, Quint. 11, 2, 50; 11, 2, 45.—

e. To reach an object striven after, to gain, acquire, obtain, attain (syn. assequor): per cursum rectum regnum tenere, Cic. Agr. 2, 17, 44: Servium Tullium post hunc captivā natum, ingenio virtute regnum tenuisse, Liv. 4, 3, 12: teneri res aliter non potest, Cic. Fam. 1, 1, 3: multa tenuisse, Liv. 42, 11, 8: causam, Ov. M. 13, 190.—

f. To hold, hold back, repress, restrain, bind, fetter, etc. (syn.: refreno, retineo): iracundiam teneat, avaritiam coërceat, Cic. Par. 5, 1, 33: dolorem, id. Att. 12, 38, 2: cupiditates, id. Verr. 2, 3, 1, 3: somnum, id. Brut. 80, 278: risum, id. Vatin. 8, 20; Hor. A. P. 5: iram, Curt. 4, 2, 5: ea, quae occurrant, tenere, to hold back, keep to themselves, Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221.—

g. Of laws, etc., to bind, hold, obligate, be binding on, control, etc.: quamquam leges eum non tenent, Cic. Phil. 11, 5, 11; cf.: interdicto non teneri, id. Caecin. 14, 41: voto quodam et promisso teneri, id. Att. 12, 18, 1: ut plebi scita omnes Quirites tenerent, Liv. 8, 12, 14; cf.: olim patricii dicebant se plebi scitis non teneri, Gai. Inst. 1, 3: cum velut in controverso jure esset, tenerenturne patres plebi scitis, legem tulere, ut quod tributim plebis jussisset, populum teneret, Liv. 3, 55, 3: teneri alienis foederibus, id. 24, 29, 11: poenā teneri, to be subject or liable to, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 5: testibus in re perspicuā teneri, to be convicted, id. Caecin. 2, 4; cf.: nemo ita in manifesto peccatu tenebatur, ut, etc., id. Verr. 2, 2, 78, 191: caedis teneri, Quint. 5, 14, 11: teneri repetundarum, Tac. A. 11, 7 fin.: furti, Dig. 6, 1, 4: injuriarum, ib. 47, 10, 11: mandati, ib. 17, 1, 10.—Transf.: nisi illi ipsi, qui eas (libidines) frangere deberent, cupiditatis ejusdem tenerentur, Cic. Leg. 3, 13, 31 Mos. and Orell. N. cr.

h. Of dispositions, desires, etc., to possess, occupy, control: quae te tanta pravitas mentis tenuerit, ut, etc., has had possession of you, Cic. Vatin. 6, 14: summum me eorum (librorum) studium tenet, id. Att. 1, 11, 3: magna me spes tenet, id. Tusc. 1, 41, 97: de triumpho nulla me cupiditas umquam tenuit, id. Att. 7, 2, 6: si consilio pulso libidines iracundiaeve tenerent omnia, id. Rep. 1, 38, 60: nisi forte quem inhonesta et perniciosa libido tenet, Sall. J. 3, 4: neque irā neque gratiā teneri, to be controlled or influenced, Cic. N. D. 1, 17, 45; so, teneri desiderio, id. Sen. 10, 33: studio philosophiae, id. Ac. 1, 2, 4: magno amore, Verg. A. 1, 675: pompā, ludis atque ejusmodi spectaculis teneri, to be enchained, fascinated, Cic. Fin. 5, 18, 48; cf.: ut oculi picturā teneantur, aures cantibus, id. Ac. 2, 7, 20: is qui audit, ab oratore jam obsessus est ac tenetur, id. Or. 62, 210.—With ne, Ov. M. 7, 146. —

k. To take in, comprise, comprehend, include: haec magnos formula reges, Excepto sapiente, tenet, Hor. S. 2, 3, 46.—More freq. pass.: teneri aliquā re, to be contained, comprised, grounded, to consist in a thing: ut homines deorum agnatione et gente teneantur, Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 23: id quod (genus officiorum) teneatur hominum societate, id. Off. 1, 45, 160: quae (causae) familiaritate et consuetudine tenentur, id. Fam. 13, 29, 1: dixi jam antea, ipsam rationem arandi spe magis et jucunditate quadam quam fructu atque emolumento teneri, id. Verr. 2, 3, 98, 227.

II. Neutr. (freq. after the Aug. per.; perh. not in Cic.).

A. Lit.

1. To hold a position anywhere, maintain one's self: quā abscisae rupes erant, statio paucorum armatorum tenebat, Liv. 32, 5, 12: duo extra ordinem milia tenuere, id. 3, 62, 7: tenent Danai, quā deficit ignis, Verg. A. 2, 505.—

2. For cursum tenere, to hold or take one's way, to sail, steer in any direction: Aeneam ... ab Siciliā classe ad Laurentem agrum tenuisse, Liv. 1, 1, 4: Cassandream petentes, primo ad Mendin tenuere, Liv. 31, 45, 14: ad Mendaeum, id. 21, 49, 2: Diam, Ov. M. 3, 690: Creten, id. ib. 13, 706: Hesperiam, id. F. 1, 498: Ausoniam, id. ib. 4, 290 al.: medio tutissimus ibis ... Inter utrumque tene, Ov. M. 2, 140.—

B. Trop., with the accessory idea of continuance (cf. I. A. 2. b. and B. 2. b. supra), to hold out, hold on, last, endure, continue, maintain itself, prevail, etc. (cf. obtineo): imber per noctem totam tenuit, Liv. 23, 44, 6; cf.: incendium per duas noctes ac diem unum tenuit, id. 24, 47, 15: per aliquot dies ea consultatio tenuit, id. 2, 3, 5; 3, 47, 6: tenet fama, lupam, etc., id. 1, 4, 6: quod nunc quoque tenet nomen, id. 1, 17, 6: fama tenuit, haud plus fuisse modio, id. 23, 12, 2; 21, 46, 10: tenuit consuetudo, quae cottidie magis invalescit, ut, etc., Quint. 2, 1, 1 Spald.; so, consuetudo, ut, etc., id. 8, 5, 2: nomen illud tenet, id. 9, 4, 47 Spald.; cf. Ov. M. 1, 712.