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terra (archaic tera, Varr. L. L. 5, 4, 21), ae (gen. terras, Naev. ap. Prisc. p. 679 P.: terraï, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 7 ib. (Ann. v. 479 Vahl.); Lucr. 1, 212; 1, 251; 2, 1063; 3, 989 et saep.), f. [perh. Sanscr. root tarsh-, to be dry, thirsty; Lat. torreo, torris; Germ Durst; Engl. thirst; prop. the dry land], the earth, opp. to the heavens, the sea, the air, etc.; land, ground, soil (cf.: tellus, solum).

I. In gen.: principio terra universa cernatur, locata in mediā sede mundi, solida et globosa et undique ipsa in sese nutibus suis conglobata, etc., Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 98: terra in medio mundo sita, id. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: hunc statum esse hujus totius mundi atque naturae, rotundum ut caelum, terra ut media sit, eaque suā vi nutuque teneatur, id. de Or. 3, 45, 178: umbra terrae, id. Rep. 1, 14, 22: terrae motus, earthquakes, id. Div. 1, 18, 35; 1, 35, 78; cf. Sen. Q. N. 6, 1, 1 sqq.; Curt. 4, 4 fin.: Plin. 2, 79, 81, 191 sq.: res invectae ex terrā, Cic. Rep. 2, 5, 10: terra continens adventus hostium denuntiat, id. ib. 2, 3, 6: Massilia fere ex tribus oppidi partibus mari alluitur: reliqua quarta est, quae aditum habeat a terrā, Caes. B. C. 2, 1: cui parti (insulae) nulla est objecta terra, id. B. G. 5, 13: iter terrā petere, Cic. Planc. 40, 96; cf.: ipse terrā eodem pergit, Liv. 31, 16, 3: esse in terrā atque in tuto loco, on solid ground, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 87: ex magnā jactatione terram videns, Cic. Mur. 2, 4: terrā marique, by land and by water (very freq.), id. Att. 9, 1, 3; id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56; Vatin. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 9, 2; Sall. C. 13, 3; cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 38, 120: insidiae terrā marique factae, id. Verr. 1, 2, 3; the form et terrā et mari is also class., id. ib. 2, 2, 39, 96 (B. and K. bracket the first et); 2, 5, 50, 131; id. Mur. 15, 33; Liv. 37, 29, 5; Nep. Hann. 10, 2; id. Ham. 1, 2; id. Alcib. 1, 2; Sen. Ep 60, 2; 101, 4; for which also: bellum terrā et mari comparat, id. Att. 10, 4, 3: terrā ac mari, id. Verr. 2, 2, 2, 4: marique terrāque usque quāque quaeritat, Plaut. Poen. prol. 105: aut terrā aut mari, id. Ps. 1, 3, 83: mari atque terrā, Sall. C. 53, 2: mari ac terrā, Flor. 2, 8, 11: mari terrāque, Liv. 37, 11, 9; 37, 52, 3: natura sic ab his investigata est, ut nulla pars caelo, mari, terrā (ut poëtice loquar) praetermissa sit, Cic. Fin. 5, 4, 9: eorum, quae gignuntur e terrā, stirpes et stabilitatem dant iis, quae sustinent, et ex terrā sucum trahunt, etc., id. N. D. 2, 47, 120: num qui nummi exciderunt, ere, tibi, quod sic terram Obtuere? Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 17: tollere saxa de terrā, Cic. Caecin. 21, 60: tam crebri ad terram accidebant, quam pira, Plaut. Poen. 2, 38; so, ad terram, id. Capt. 4, 2, 17; id. Pers. 2, 4, 22; id. Rud. 4, 3, 71: aliquem in terram statuere, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 18: ne quid in terram defluat, Cic. Lael. 16, 58: penitus terrae defigitur arbos, Verg. G. 2, 290; so. terrae (dat.), id. ib. 2, 318; id. A. 11, 87; Ov. M. 2, 347; Liv. 5, 51, 3; Plin. 14, 21, 27, 133 al.: sub terris si jura deum, in the infernal regions, Prop. 3, 5 (4, 4), 39; cf.: mei sub terras ibit imago, Verg. A. 4, 654: genera terrae, kinds of earth, Plin. 35, 16, 53, 191: Samia terra, Samian pottery clay, id. 28, 12, 53, 194: terrae filius, son of earth, i. e. human being, Cic. Att. 1, 13, 4: terrā orti, natives of the soil, aborigines, autochthones, Quint. 3, 7, 26: cum aquam terramque ab Lacedaemoniis petierunt, water and earth (as a token of subjection), Liv. 35, 17, 7: terram edere, Cels. 2, 7, 7. —

B. Personified, Terra, the Earth, as a goddess; usu. called Tellus, Magna Mater, Ceres, Cybele, etc.: jam si est Ceres a gerendo, Terra ipsa dea est et ita habetur: quae est enim alia Tellus? Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 52; cf. Varr. R. R. 1, 1, 5; Ov. F. 6, 299; 6. 460; Hyg. Fab. 55; 140; 152; Naev. 2, 16; Suet. Tib. 75. —

II. In partic., a land, country, region, territory (cf.: regio, plaga, tractus): Laurentis terra, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 762 P. (Ann. v. 35 Vahl.): terra erilis patria, Plaut. Stich. 5. 2, 2; cf.: in nostrā terrā in Apuliā, id. Cas. prol. 72: tua, id. Men. 2, 1, 4: mea, Ov. Tr. 1, 1, 128: in hac terrā, Cic. Lael. 4, 13: in eā terrā (sc. Sicilia), id. Verr. 2, 4, 48, 106: terra Gallia, Caes. B. G. 1, 30: terra Italia, Liv. 25 7, 4 Drak. N. cr.; 29, 10, 5; 30, 32, 6; 38, 47 6; 39, 17, 2; 42, 29, 1: Africa, id. 29, 23, 10 Hispania, id. 38, 58, 5: Pharsalia, id. 33, 6, 11. —In plur.: in quascumque terras, Cic. Rep. 2, 4, 9: eae terrae, id. Verr. 2, 3, 18, 47: qui terras incolunt eas, in quibus, etc., id. N. D. 2, 16, 42: abire in aliquas terras, id. Cat. 1, 8, 20: (Cimbri) alias terras petierunt, Caes. B. G. 7, 77 et saep. — Esp., terrae, the earth, the world: pecunia tanta, quanta est in terris, in the whole earth, in the world, Cic. Agr. 2, 23, 62: quid erat in terris, ubi, etc., id. Phil. 2, 19, 48; 2, 20, 50; 2, 23, 57; id. Cael. 5, 12: ruberes Viveret in terris te si quis avarior, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 157; Sen. Prov. 2, 9; so, aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat, Verg. G. 2, 538: terrarum cura, id. ib. 1, 26. — Ante-class., also in terrā, in the world: quibus nunc in terrā melius est? Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 100: scelestiorem in terrā nullam esse alteram, id. Cist. 4, 1, 8; id. Mil. 1, 1, 52; 2, 3, 42; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 51; id. Aul. 5, 9, 12; id. Curc. 1, 2, 51.—Hence also the phrase orbis terrarum, the world, the whole world, all nations: quae orbem terrarum implevere famā, Plin. 36, 36, 13, 76: Graecia in toto orbe terrarum potentissima, id. 18, 7, 12, 65: cujus tres testes essent totum orbem terrarum nostro imperio teneri, Cic. Balb. 6, 16; but freq. also orbis terrarum, the world, i. e. the empire of Rome: orbis terrarum gentiumque omnium, id. Agr. 2, 13, 33; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; while orbis terrae, the globe, the earth, the world, id. Phil. 13, 15, 30; id. Fam. 5, 7, 3; id. Fl. 41, 103; id. Agr. 1, 1, 2; but also with ref. to the Roman dominion, id. de Or. 3, 32, 131; id. Sull. 11, 33; id. Dom. 42, 110; id. Phil. 8, 3, 10; id. Off, 2, 8, 27; id. Cat. 1, 1, 3; cf. of the Senate: publicum orbis terrae consilium, id. Fam. 3, 8, 4; id. Cat. 1, 4, 9; id. Phil. 3, 14, 34; 4, 6, 14; 7, 7, 19; v. orbis: quoquo hinc asportabitur terrarum, certum est persequi, Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 18: ubi terrarum esses, ne suspicabar quidem, in what country, or where in the world, Cic. Att. 5, 10, 4, so, ubi terrarum, id. Rab. Post. 13, 37: ubicumque terrarum, id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, 143; id. Phil. 2, 44, 113.