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τόπος, ὁ (fem. by attraction τόπον τὰν καλειμέναν Δαματρείαν IG 9(1).32.80 (Stiris, ii B.C.)), place, region, first in A. (v. infr.), afterwds. freq. in all writers; periphr., χθονὸς πᾶς τ., i.e. the whole earth, A. Eu.249; ἐς τὸν Ἑλλήνων τ. Id.Pers.790; ἐν Ἑλλάδος τόποις in Greece, ib.796; ἐν Αὐλίδοστ. Id.Ag.191 (lyr.); Πέλοπος ἐντ. Id.Eu.703, cf. 292; πρὸς ἑσπέρους τ. towards the West, Id.Pr.350; πρόσθε Σαλαμῖνος τόπων before Salamis, Id.Pers.447; Θρῄκης ἐκ τόπων E.Alc.67; Διρκαίων ἐκ τ. Id.Ph.1027 (lyr.): so in Prose, district, ὁ τ. ὁ Ἑλληνικός Isoc. 5.107, cf. Ep.1.8; ὁ περὶ Θρᾴκην τ. D.20.59; ὁ ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης τ. Aeschin. 2.9, 3.73; ὁ τ. οὗτος, ἐν τούτοις τοῖς τ., X.An.4.4.4, Cyr.2.4.20; ὅλος τ. a whole region, D.19.230; κατὰ τόπους καὶ κώμας Pl.Criti. 119a; οἱ τῆς χώρας τ. the places of a country, Id.Lg.760c, etc. (but ὁ τ. τῆς χώρας the geographical position, D.4.31; region, Pl.Lg.705c); ὁ ἅγιοστ., of Jerusalem, LXX 2 Ma.2.18 (cf. infr. 5); the universe divided into three τόποι, Arist.IA706b3, Cael.312a8 (contrast PA666a15, etc.); οἱ κοινοὶ τ. public sites or buildings, IG42(1).65.8 (Epid.); ἄσυλος τ. BGU1053 ii 9 (i B. C.), PTeb.5.83 (pl., ii B. C.); οἰκίαι καὶ τόποι houses and sites, ib.281.12 (ii B.C.); so ψιλοὶ τ. sites not built upon, OGI52.2 (Ptolemais, iii/ii B. C.).

2. place, position, οὐ τὸν τρόπον, ἀλλὰ τὸν τ. μόνον μεταλλάξαι Aeschin.3.78; ὑπολιποῦ τ. leave a space (in a document), PCair.Zen.327.83 (iii B.C.); περικήπῳ τ. καταλιπεῖν ib.193.8 (iii B.C.); τ. ἔχειν have a place, D.H.Dem.23, Plu.2.646a; φίλου τ. ἔχειν hold the place of .., Arr.Epict.2.4.5; Μερόλας ὁ αἱρεθεὶς ὕπατος εἰς τὸν τοῦ Κίννα τ. D.S.38/39.3; ἐνεγράφη εἰς τὴν ἱερωσύνην εἰς τὸν Αευκίου Δομιτίου τ. τετελευτηκότος Nic. Dam.Fr. 127.4J., cf. D.H.2.73; ἀναπληροῦν τὸν τ. τοῦ ἰδιώτου 1 Ep.Cor.14.16; τ. ἔχειν also = have room (to grow), Thphr.HP1.7.1; τόπῳ c. gen., in place of, instead of, Hdn.2.14.5; ἀνὰ τόπον on the spot, immediately, E.Supp.604 (lyr., dub.l.); so ἐν τόπῳ IG12(7).515.63 (Amorgos); ἐπὶ τόπου Plb.4.73.8; ἐπὶ τῶν τ. PEnteux.55.5 (iii B. C.), UPZ70.16 (ii B.C.), CIL3.567.3 (Delph., ii B. C.), POxy.2106.23 (iv A. D.), etc.; κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν τ. S.E.P.3.1; παρὰ τόπον at a wrong place, Str.10.2.21, Arr.Epict.3.21.16 (but παρὰ τ. καὶ παρὰ καιρόν by virtue of the place and the time, ib.3.21.14).

3. place or part of the body, Hp.Aph. 2.46, Loc.Hom.tit., Sor.2.40, al., Gal. in titles of works, e.g. περὶ τῶν πεπονθότων τόπων, περὶ συνθέσεως φαρμάκων τῶν κατὰ τόπους; esp. ὁ τόπος, pudendum muliebre, Arist.HA572b28, 583a15, cf. Sor.2.62 (pl.).

4. place, passage in an author, κατὰ τόπους τινὰς τῆς ἱστορίας Plb.12.25f.1, cf. Ph.2.63, Ev.Luc.4.17, Sor.2.57,58, etc.; the word is prob. interpolated in X.Mem.2.1.20.

5. burial-place, IG12(7).401 (Amorgos), al., Ev.Marc. 16.6; also in codd. of E.Heracl. 1041 (fort. leg. τάφον); later ὁ ἅγιος τ. is freq. of the grave of a martyr, or of a monastery associated with it, PMasp.94.18 (vi A.D.), etc.

6. in Egypt, district, department, a sub-division of the νομός, = τοπαρχία, PMich.Zen.43.8 (iii B. C.), Theb.Ostr.27.2 (ii B. C.): but most freq. in pl., ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν τ. στρατηγός, πράκτωρ, etc., PEnteux.27.9 (iii B. C.), PRein.7.17,35 (ii B. C.), etc.; οἱ ἔξω τ. dub. sens. in PEnteux.87.2 (iii B. C.), BGU1114.6 (i B. C.), etc.

7. a room in a house, τόπον ἕνα ἄνευ ἐνοικίου ib.896.4 (ii A. D.); δύο τόπους ἤτοι συμπόσια POxy. 1129.10 (V A. D.), cf. 502.34 (ii A. D.), 912.13 (iii A. D.).

8. position on the zodiac, Vett.Val.139.13; esp. the twelve regions of 300, Ptol. Tetr.128, Heph.Astr.1.12.

9. αὐτὸς ὁ θεὸς καλεῖται τόπος, τῷ περιέχειν τὰ ὅλα Ph.1.630, cf. Corp.Herm.2.12, Hippol. Haer.6.32.

II. topic, Isoc.5.109, 10.38, Aeschin.3.216, Plb.21.19.2, Phld. Rh.1.119S., etc.

2. common-place or element in Rhetoric, ὁ τοῦ μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον τ. Arist.Rh.1358a14, cf. 1396b30, 1397a7; τὸ αὐτὸ λέγω στοιχεῖον καὶ τ. ib. 1403a18: pl., Phld.Rh.1.226S.

b. = ὁμολογουμένου πράγματος αὔξησις, Hermog Prog.11; κοινὸς τ. ib.6.

c. generally, sphere, ὁ πραγματικὸς τ. D.H.Comp.1.

III. metaph., opening, occasion, opportunity, ἐν τ. τινὶ ἀφανεῖ Th.6.54 (but τρόπῳ is prob. cj.); ὀργῇ διδόναι τ. Plu.2.462b; μὴ δίδοτε τ. τῷ διαβόλῳ Ep.Eph.4.27; δότε τ. τῇ ὀργῇ leave room for the wrath (of God), i.e. let God punish, Ep.Rom.12.19; μὴ καταλείπεσθαί σφισι τ. ἐλέους Plb.1.88.2; μετανοίας τ. οὐχ εὗρε Ep.Hebr.12.17; οὐδὲ φυγῆς τόπον εὐμοιρήσαντες Hld.6.13; τ. διδόναι τινί c. inf., give occasion to .., LXX Si.4.5.