Previous: τρεφουργίαNext: τρεφώνιος


τρέφω, Il.5.52, etc.; Dor. τράφω (v. sub voce); 1sg. opt. τρέφοιν E.Fr.903: fut. θρέψω h.Ven.257, etc.: aor. 1 ἔθρεψα, Ep. θρέψα Il.2.548: aor. 2 ἔτρᾰφον (v. infr. B): pf. τέτροφα intr., Od.23.237, (συν-) Hp.Morb.Sacr. 11; but trans., S.OC186 (lyr.); also τέτρᾰφα Plb.12.25h.5:—
Med., fut. θρέψομαι in pass. sense, Hp.Genit.9, Nat.Puer. 23, Th.7.49, etc.: aor. ἐθρεψάμην Pi.O.6.46, A.Ch.928, etc.:—
Pass., fut. τρᾰφήσομαι Ps.-D.60.32, D.H.8.41, etc., but in early writers in med. form θρέψομαι (v. supr.): aor. 1 ἐθρέφθην, Ep. θρέφθη Hes.Th. 198, rare in Trag. and Att., E.Hec.351, 600, Pl.Plt.310a; ἐθράφθη IG12(9).286 (Eretria, vi B. C.): aor. 2 ἐτράφην [ᾰ] Hom. (sed v. infr. B), A.Th.754 (lyr.), Ar.Av.335 (lyr.), etc.; Ep. 3pl. ἔτραφεν, τράφεν, Il.23.348, 1.251: pf. τέθραμμαι Hp.Nat.Hom.5, E.Heracl.578, etc.; 2pl. τέθραφθε Pl.Lg.625a (but συντέτραφθε [s. v. l.] in X.Cyr.6.4.14); inf. τεθράφθαι Pl.Grg.525a, X.HG2.3.24 (in both with v. l. τετρ-).

I. thicken or congeal a liquid, γάλα θρέψαι curdle it, Od.9.246; τρέφε (impf.) πίονατυρόν Theoc.25.106:—
Pass., with pf.Act. τέτροφα, curdle, congeal, γάλα τρεφόμενον τυρὸν ἐργάζεσθαι Ael.NA16.32; περὶ χροί̈ τέτροφεν ἅλμη Od.23.237.

II. usu., cause to grow or increase, bring up, rear, esp. of children bred and brought up in a house, ὅ σ' ἔτρεφε τυτθὸν ἐόντα Il.8.283; ἥ μ' ἔτεχ', ἥ μ' ἔθρεψε Od.2.131, cf. 12.134; εὖ ἔτρεφεν ἠδ' ἀτίταλλεν Il.16.191, cf. Od.19.354; ἐγώ σ' ἔθρεψα, σὺν δὲ γηράναι θέλω A.Ch.908, cf. Supp.894; μέχρι ἥβης τ. Th.2.46; γεννᾶν καὶ τ. Pl.Plt.274a; τ. τε καὶ αὔξειν μέγαν Id.R.565c: c. acc. cogn., τ. τινὰ τροφήν τινα bring up in a certain way, Hdt.2.2; also τῶν πρώτων μαθημάτων, ἐν οἷς οἱ παλαιοὶ τοὺς παῖδας ἔτρεφον Gal.16.691:—
Med., rear for oneself, θρέψαιό τε φαίδιμον υἱόν Od.19.368; αὐτὸν ἐθρέψαντο δράκοντες Pi.O.6.46; τεκοῦσα τόνδ' ὄφιν ἐθρεψάμην A.Ch.928; οἱ γεννήσαντες καὶ θρεψάμενοι Pl.Lg.717c; τεκὼν ἀρετὴν καὶ θ. Id.Smp.212a; ἔτεκον μὲν ὑμᾶς πολεμίοις δ' ἐθρεψάμην ὕβρισμα E.HF458:—
Pass., to be reared, grow up, ὅς μοι τηλύγετος τρέφεται θαλίῃ ἔνι πολλῇ Il.9.143; τῇ ὁμοῦ ἐτρεφόμην Od.15.365; ἅμα τράφεν ἠδ' ἐγένοντο Il.1.251, etc.; κάρτιστοι τράφεν ἀνδρῶν grew up the strongest men, ib.266:—
prop. a boy was called τρεφόμενος only so long as he remained in the charge of the women, i. e. till his fifth year, Hdt.1.136; ἐξ ὅτου 'τράφην ἐγώ from the time when I left the nursery, Ar.Av.322; but even of pre-natal growth, ἐν σκότοισινηδύος τεθραμμένη A.Eu.665, cf. Th.754 (lyr.):—
generally, in Trag., τραφεὶς μητρὸς εὐγενοῦς ἄπο S.Aj.1229; ὅπως πατρὸς δείξεις οἷος ἐξ οἵου ̓τράφης ib.557; κρατίστου πατρὸς ..τραφείς Id.Ph.3: παῖδες μητέρων τεθραμμέναι true nurslings of your mothers, implying a reproach for unmanliness (s. v.l.), A.Th.792; μιᾶς τρέφει πρὸς νυκτός art nursed by night alone, i. e. art blind, S.OT 374.

2. of slaves, cattle, dogs and the like , rear and keep them, κύνας Il.22.69, Od.14.22, etc.; ἵππους Il.2.766; λέοντος ἶνιν (v. σίνις) A.Ag.717 (lyr.); μῆλα Id.Eu.946 (lyr.); ὄφιν S.Fr.226 (cj. for στρέφουσι); ἰκτῖνα Ar. Fr.628; ὄρτυγας Eup.214; ὄρνιθας Pl.Tht.197c; οἱ τρέφοντες (sc. τοὺς ἐλέφαντας) the keepers, Arist.HA571b33; τ. παιδαγωγούς Aeschin.1.187; also τ. γυναῖκα E.IA749; τ. [ἑταίραν], [πόρνας], keep .., Antiph. 2, Diph. 87; ὁ τρέφων one's master, Nicol.Com.1.11,36: metaph., αἰγιαλὸν ἔνδον τρέφει he keeps a sea-beach in the house, Ar.V.110:—
Pass., to be bred, reared, δοῦλος οὐκ ὠνητός, ἀλλ' οἴκοι τραφείς S.OT1123; ἐν τῇ σῇ οἰκίᾳ γέγονεν καὶ τέθραπται was born and bred, Pl.Men.85e; Ἀγαθῖνον θρεμένον (i. e. τεθρεμμένον, = θρεπτόν, v. θρεπτός 1) ἑαυτῶν MAMA4.275 B (Dionysopolis, ii A. D.); Νείκην τὴν θρεμένην μου ib.276 A (Dionysopolis, ii A. D.).

3. tend, cherish, τὸν μὲν ἐγὼ φίλεόν τε καὶ ἔτρεφον, of Calypso, Od.5.135, cf. 7.256; of plants, Il.17.53; θρέψασα φυτὸν ὥς 18.57, cf. Od.14.175.

4. of parts of the body, let grow, cherish, foster, χαίτην ..Σπερχειῷ τρέφε Il.23.142; τῷ θεῷ [πλόκαμον] τ. E.Ba.494; ὑπήνην ἄκουρον τ. Ar.V.476 (lyr.); τ. κόμην, = κομᾶν, Hdt.1.82; [τρίχες] πολλῷ ἐλαίῳ τραφεῖσαι Hero Bel.112: also τά θ' ὕεσσι τρέφει ἀλοιφήν things which put fat on swine, Od.13.410; τεθραμμένη εἰς πολυσαρκίαν X.Mem.2.1.22.

5. in Poets, of earth and sea, breed, produce, teem with, οὐδὲν ἀκιδνότερον γαῖα τ. ἀνθρώποιο Od.18.130; ἄγρια, τά τε τρέφει οὔρεσιν ὕλη Il.5.52; φάρμακα, ὅσα τρέφει εὐρεῖα χθών 11.741; ὅσ' ἤπειρος ..τρέφει ἠδὲ θάλασσα Hes.Th.582; πολλὰ γᾶ τρέφει δεινά A.Ch.585 (lyr.), cf. 128, E.Hec.1181; θάλασσα ..τρέφουσα πορφύρας ἰσάργυρον κηκῖδα A.Ag.959; ὃν πόντος τ., i. e. the sailors, Pi.I.1.48: rare in Prose, ἀεί τι ἡ Αιβύη τρέφει καινόν Arist. GA746b8.

6. in Poets also, simply, have within oneself, contain, ὅ τι καὶ πόλις τέτροφεν ἄφιλον S.OC186 (lyr.), cf. Tr.817; τρέφειν τὴν γλῶσσαν ἡσυχαιτέραν to keep his tongue more quiet, Id.Ant.1089; ἡ γλῶσσα τὸν θυμὸν δεινὸν τ. Id.Aj.1124; τἀληθὲς γὰρ ἰσχῦον τρέφω Id.OT 356 (so in Pl., τ. ἰσχυρὸν τὸ ἐλεινόν R.606b); τ. νόσον S. Ph.795; ἐκ φόβου φόβον τ. Id.Tr.28; ἄταν Id.Aj.644 (lyr.); οἵας λατρείας ..τρέφει what services ..she has as her lot, ib.503; ἐν ἐλπίσιν τρέφω ..ἥξειν I cherish hopes that .., Id.Ant.897; τὸν Καδμογενῆ τρέφει ..βιότου πολύπονον [πέλαγος] is his daily lot, Id.Tr.117 (lyr., but Reiske's cj. στρέφει is prob.); πόνοι τρέφοντες βροτούς E.Hipp.367 (lyr.).

III. maintain, support, τ. ἀνδρὸς μόχθος ἡμένας ἔσω A.Ch.921, cf. Pi.O.9.106; τοῦ τρέφοντος Ἡλίου χθονὸς φύσιν A.Ag.633; τ. τὸν πατέρα Aeschin.1.13; τὴν οἰκίαν ὅλην D.59.67; οὐ δίκαιον τρέφεσθαι ὑπὸ πατρὸς ὑὸν ἡβῶντα Pl.R.568e; τὰ κτήνη χιλῷ ἐτρέφοντο X.An.4.5.25; γάλακτι, τυρῷ, κρέασι τ., Id.Mem. 4.3.10; σίτῳ, ὄψῳ, Id.Lac.1.3; feed a patient, Gal.15.503, 19.185; provide the food for an employee, σοῦ τρέφοντος αὐτόν, ἐμοῦ δὲ ἱματίζοντος αὐτόν BGU1647.14 (ii A. D.); also τ. ἀπό τινος Pl.Prt.313c, X.HG2.1.1; ἔκ τινος A.Ag.1479 (lyr.), cf. Pl.R.372b.

2. maintain an army or fleet, Th.4.83, X.An.1.1.9 (Pass.); τ. τὰς ναῦς Th. 8.44, X.HG1.5.5, 5.1.24; τ. τὸ ναυτικὸν ἀπὸ τῶν νήσων ib.4.8.9; ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν τρέφεσθαι Id.An.7.4.11, etc.

3. of land, feed, maintain one, τρέφει γὰρ οὗτος [ὁ ἀγρὸς] ..με Philem.98.2, cf. Men.63,466, al.

4. of women, feed or suckle an infant, συνεξομοιοῦται τὰ τρεφόμενα ταῖς τρεφούσαις Sor.1.88; γυνὴ τρέφουσα ib.87; ἡ τρέφουσα, = ἡ τροφός, Gal.6.44.

5. of food, nourish, τὰ Ἡρακλεωτικὰ τρέφει οὐχ ὁμοίως τοῖς ἀμυγδάλοις Diocl.Fr.126, cf. 117; ἡ οὐκ ἐπιτηδείως τῷ σώματι διδομένη τροφὴ οὐ τρέφει Sor.1.49; πυρῶν ..ὅσοι κοῦφοι ..ἧττον τρέφουσι Gal.Vict.Att 6; τὸ δέρμα πᾶν αὐτοῖς ὡς ἂν ὑπὸ φλεγματ ώδους αἵματος τρεφόμενον οἰδαλέον γίνεται Id.18(2).118, cf. 106.

IV. bring up, rear, educate, Hes.Fr.19, Pi.N.3.53, etc.; τῷ λόγῳ τ. καὶ παιδεύεις Pl.R.534d; θρέψαι καὶ παιδεῦσαι D.59.18; Δήμητερ ἡ θρέψασα τὴν ἐμὴν φρένα A.Fr.479; ἡ θρέψασα (sc. γῆ) the motherland, Lycurg. 47:—
Med., ἐθρέψω Ξέρξην ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤθεσιν Pl.Lg.695e; ἡ θρεψαμένη one's motherland, Lycurg.85:—
Pass., ὀρθῶς, εὖ τραφῆναι, Pl. R.401e, Alc.1.120e; παιδείᾳ, ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ παιδείᾳ τ., Id.Lg.695c, X. Cyn.1.16; ἐν πολυτρόποις ξυμφοραῖς Th.2.44; ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ Pl.Tht. 172c; ἐν χλιδῇ X.Cyr.4.5.54; ἐν ἐλευθερίᾳ Pl.Tht.175d, Mx.239a; ἐν ἄλλοις νόμοις Arist.Pol.1327a14; ἐν φωνῇ βαρβάρῳ Pl.Prt.341c; πάσαις Μούσαισι BCH50.444 (Thespiae, iv A. D.).

V. the Pass. sts. came to mean little more than to be, ἐπ' ἐμοὶ πολέμιον ἐτράφη (sc. τὸ γένος) Ar.Av.335 (lyr.), cf. Th.141, S.OC805.

B. Hom. uses an intr. aor. 2 Act. ἔτραφον in pass. sense (which is to τρέφομαι, τέτροφα (intr.) as ἔδρακον to δέρκομαι, δέδορκα, etc.), ὃς ..ἔτραφ' ἄριστος Il.21.279; λέοντε ἐτραφέτην ὑπὸ μητρί 5.555; τραφέμεν (Ep. for τραφεῖν) 7.199, Od.3.28, al.; ἐπεὶ τράφ' ἐνὶ μεγάρῳ, i. e. when he was well-grown, Il.2.661:—
as trans. the aor. 2 is used by Hom. only in Il.23.90, and τράφε in Pi.N.3.53 is Dor. impf.:—
ἐτράφην is perh. post-Homeric; 3sg. τράφη is v. l. in Il.2.661, 1pl. ἐτράφημεν and 1sg. ἐτράφην (περ) vv. ll. in 23.84; τράφη is in all codd. of 3.201, 11.222, which should prob. be emended from 2.661; 3pl. ἔτραφεν 23.348 (v.l. ἔτραφον), Od.10.417 (v.l. ἔτραφον); τράφεν in all codd. of Il.1.251, 266, Od.14.201, also (with v. l. τράφον) in 4.723: the vox nihili ἐτράφεμεν, found in Il.23.84 as cited by Aeschin.1.149, was emended by Scaliger to ἐτράφομεν:—
the redupl. 3sg. τέτραφ' Il.21.279, 3pl. τέτραφεν 23.348, are ff. ll., though found in many codd. Later this aor. became obsolete, except in Ep. imitators, as in Call.Jov.55, Opp.H.1.774.