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τύραννος [ῠ], ὁ, also ἡ (v. infr. 1.2), an absolute ruler, unlimited by law or constitution, first in h.Mart. 5 (unless the hymn is late), where it is used of a god, Ἆρες, ..ἀντιβίοισι τύραννε; so ὁ τῶν θεῶν τ., of Zeus, A.Pr.736, cf. Ar.Nu.564 (lyr.); ὦ τύραννε τᾶς ἐμᾶς φρενός, i.e. Apollo, S.Tr.217 (lyr.); σὺ δ' ὦ τύραννε θεῶν τε κἀνθρώπων Ἔρως E.Fr.136; Μὴν Τύραννος, a Phrygian deity worshipped in Attica, IG22.1366.2(i A. D.), al.; οὔ, τὴν τ. (perh. Hera), in an oath, Herod.5.77: first used of monarchs in the time of Archil. (cf. τυραννίς 1) acc. to Hippias 9 D.; Φίττακον ἐστάσαντο τ. Alc. 37 A; ἢν μή τις ἢ τ. ἢ σκηπτοῦχος ᾖ Semon.7.69; λαγέτας τ. Pi.P.3.85; interchangeable with βασιλεύς in Isoc.2.4 (cf. 1), 35 (cf. 36); later, chief, princeling, OGI 654.8 (Egypt, i B. C.); τ. ἴδιοι καθ' ἕκαστον ἐμτπόριον Peripl.M.Rubr.14: c. gen., Κροῖσος ..τ. ἐθνέων τῶν ἐντὸς Ἅλυος Hdt.1.6; Κλεισθένης ὁ Σικυῶνος τ., Ἱστιαῖος ὁ Μιλήτου τ., etc., Id.5.67, 7.10.γ́, etc.; ὁ τῶν Κυπρίων τ. Sor.1.39; οἱ τ., of the Sicilian tyrants, Th.1.14; of the Pisistratidae, X.HG6.5.33, Arist.Ath.13.5, Pol.1275b36, cf. Th.6.54, Pl.Smp.182c; τὸν τ. κτανέτην Scol.9.3; οἱ τ. the monarchical party, προδιδοὺς τοῖς τ. τὴμ πόλιν τὴν Ἐρυθραίων IG12.10.32: freq. in a bad sense, δημοφάγος τ. Thgn.1181, cf. 823, Hdt.3.80, Pl.Grg.510b, Plt. 301c, R.569b, etc.; ὕβρις φυτεύει τύραννον S.OT873 (lyr.).

2. in a wider sense, of members of the ruler's family, οἱ τ. 'the royal house', Id.Tr.316, cf. OC851, Charito 1.2: ἡ τύραννος is used both of the queen herself and the king's daughter, princess, E.Hec.809, Med. 42, 877, 1356, cf. infr. 11; πρέπει γὰρ ὡς τ. εἰσορᾶν, of Clytemnestra, S.El.664; αὐτὴ ..τ. ἦ Φρυγῶν E.Andr.204.

3. metaph., ἵνα Δίκη τ. ᾖ that Justice may be supreme, Critias 25.6D.; ἔΡως τ. ἀνδρῶν E. Hipp.538 (lyr.); Πειθὼ τὴν τ. ἀνθρώποις μόνην Id.Hec.816.

4. golden-crested wren, Regulus cristatus, Arist.HA592b23; cf. τροχίλος 1.2.

II. τύραννος, ον, as Adj., kingly, royal, τύραννα σκῆπτρα A. Pr.761; τ. σχῆμα S.Ant.1169; τύραννα δρᾶν to act as a king, Id.OT 588; ἡ τύραννος κόρη E.Med.1125; τύραννον δῶμα the king's palace, Id.Hipp.843 (lyr.), etc.; τ. ἑστία Id.Andr.3; τ. δόμος the royal house, Id.Hel.478, etc.; ἐς τύρανν' ἐγημάμην into the royal house, Id.Tr.474.

2. imperious, despotic, τ. πόλις Th.1.122, 124; αἱ τ. φύσεις Luc.Ner.2. (Loan-word, prob. from Phrygian or Lydian.)