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turpis, e, adj. [Sanscr. root tarp-, to be ashamed], ugly, unsightly, unseemly, foul, filthy (class.; esp. freq. in a trop. sense; syn.: taeter, foedus, deformis, obscaenus, immundus).

I. Lit.: aspectus deformis atque turpis, Cic. Off. 1, 35, 126; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 125: ornatus, id. ib. 1, 2, 94; cf. infra, II.: vestitus, Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 57: colores foedā specie, Lucr. 2, 421: pes, Hor. S. 1, 2, 102: podex, id. Epod. 8, 5: rana, id. ib. 5, 19: pecus, id. S. 1, 3, 100: viri morbo, deformed, disfigured, id. C. 1, 37, 9: macies, id. ib. 3, 27, 53: scabies, Verg. G. 3, 441: podagrae, id. ib. 3, 299: udo membra flmo, i. e. befouled, id. A. 5, 358; cf. toral, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 22; Mart. 7, 36, 5; 8, 79, 2.—Sup.: simia quam similis turpissima bestia nobis, Enn. ap. Cic. N. D. 1, 35, 97 (Sat. v. 45 Vahl.)—

II. Transf., of sound, disagreeable, cacophonous: si etiam abfugit turpe visum est, Cic. Or. 47, 158.—

III. Trop., unseemly, shameful, disgraceful, base, infamous, scandalous, dishonorable (syn.: inhonestus, impurus, sordidus, indecorus): pulchrum ornatum turpes mores pejus caeno collinunt, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 133: verbum, Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 19: cum esset proposita aut fuga turpis aut gloriosa mors, Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97: mors honesta saepe vitam quoque turpem exornat, at vita turpis saepe ne morti quidem honestae locum relinquit, id. Quint. 15, 49: adulescentia, id. Font. 15, 34: causam, Auct. Her. 1, 6, 9: causa, Caes. B. C. 3, 20: luxuria cum omni aetati turpis, tum senectuti foedissima est, Cic. Off. 1, 34, 123: si enim disserunt, nihil esse obscenum, nihil turpe dictu, id. Fam. 9, 22, 1: neque rogemus res turpes, nec faciamus rogati, id. Lael. 12, 40: formido mortis, id. Rep. 1, 3, 4: pars ingentem formidine turpi Scandunt equum, Verg. A. 2, 400: repulsa, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 43: turpem senectam Degere, id. C. 1, 31, 19: adulter, id. ib. 1, 33, 9: meretricis amor, id. S. 1, 4, 111: non turpis ad te, sed miser confugit, Cic. Quint. 31, 98; id. Att. 5, 11, 5: prodis ex judice Dama Turpis, Hor. S. 2, 7, 55: sub dominā meretrice turpis, id. Ep. 1, 2, 25: Egestas, Verg. A. 6, 276: facta, Quint. 1, 2, 2: fama, Tac. A. 12, 49: nihil turpe est, cujus placet pretium, Sen. Ep. 95, 33: luxus, Juv. 6, 298: fames, Flor. 4, 5, 3: foedus, Val. Max. 1, 6, 7: metus, id. 2, 9, 8.—Comp.: quid hoc turpius? quid foedius? Cic. Phil. 2, 34, 86: quid est autem nequius aut turpius effeminato viro? id. Tusc. 3, 17, 36: nihil est turpius quam cum eo bellum gerere, quocum familiariter vixeris, id. Lael. 21, 77; 26, 99; Caes. B. G. 4, 2.—Sup.: homo turpissimus atque inhonestissimus, Cic. Rosc. Am. 18, 50: iste omnium turpissimus et sordidissimus, id. Att. 9, 9, 3: turpissima fuga, Caes. B. C. 2, 31: turpissimus calumniae quaestus, Crassus ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 55, 226: quod quidem mihi videtur esse turpissimum, Cic. Tusc. 2, 4, 12.—

b. As subst.: turpĕ, is, n., a base or shameful thing, a disgrace, shame, reproach: nec honesto quicquam honestius, nec turpi turpius, Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 75: turpe senex miles, turpe senilis amor. Ov. Am. 1, 9, 4: honesta et turpia virtutis ac malitiae societas efficit, Sen. Ep. 31, 5.—Adv. (poet.): turpe incedere, in an unsightly manner, unbecomingly, Cat. 42, 8: gemens, Stat. Th. 3, 334.—

c. Turpe est, or simply turpe, with a subj.-clause: habere quaestui rem publicam, non modo turpe est, sed sceleratum etiam et nefarium, Cic. Off. 2, 22, 77: quod facere non turpe est, modo, etc., id. ib. 1, 35, 127: benevolentiam adsentando colligere turpe est, id. Lael. 17, 61: quid autem turpius quam illudi? id. ib. 26, 99; cf. id. ib. 21, 77: turpe erit, ingenium mitius esse feris, Ov. Am. 1, 10, 26; cf.: turpe ducet cedere pari, Quint. 1, 2, 22.— Hence, adv.: turpĭter, in an ugly or unsightly manner.

1. Lit. (so rare): ut turpiter atrum Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne, Hor. A. P. 3: claudicare, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 20.—

2. Trop., in an unseemly manner, basely, shamefully, dishonorably (class.): turpiter et nequiter facere aliquid, Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 36; unum illud extimescebam, ne quid turpiter facerem, id. Att. 9, 7, 1: turpiter se in castra recipere, Caes. B. G. 7, 20: me turpiter hodie hic dabo, Ter. Eun. 2, 1, 24; id. Hec. 4, 4, 2; Cic. Att. 6, 3, 9; 7, 2, 7; id. Mil. 4, 9; Caes. B. G. 7, 80; id. B. C. 3, 24; Auct. B. G. 8, 13; Hor. A. P. 284; Ov. M. 4, 187; Phaedr. 1, 25, 2; Val. Max. 2, 7, 15.—Comp., Ov. Tr. 5, 6, 13.—Sup., Cic. N. D. 1, 12, 29; Sen. Ep. 82, 12.