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ὑπέρ [ῠ], Ep. also ὑπείρ, used by Hom. (metri gr.) only in the phrase ὑπεὶρ ἅλα (v. ὑπείρ); Arc. ὁπέρ (q. v.): in Aeol. replaced by περί (v. περί A. V): Prep. governing gen. and acc., in Arc. also dat. (Cf. Skt. upaári 'above', Goth. ufar, OE. ofer 'over':—
from it are formed the Comp.and Sup. ὑπέρτερος, -τατος, also Adv. ὕπερθεν, and Nouns ὑπέρα, ὕπερος.)

A. WITH GENIT.,

I. of Place, over;

1. in a state of rest, over, above, freq. in Hom., βάλε ..στέρνον ὑ. μαζοῖο Il.4.528; χιτωνίσκους ἐνεδεδύκεσαν ὑ. γονάτων not reaching to the knees, X.An.5.4.13; ἕστηκε ..ὅσον τ' ὄργυι' ὑ. αἴης Il.23.327; εἴθ' ὑ. γῆς, εἴτ' ἐπὶ γῆς, εἴθ' ὑπὸ γῆς Thphr.Ign.1; στῆ δ' ἄρ' ὑ. κεφαλῆς stood over his head as he lay asleep, Il.2.20, Od.4.803, al.; πασάων ὕ. ἥ γε κάρη ἔχει 6.107; ὑ. πόλιος, ὅθι Ἕρμαιος λόφος ἐστίν, ἦα 16.471; ὑ. κεφαλῆς οἱ ἐγίνετο διεξελαύνοντι over head, i. e. over the gateway, Hdt.1.187; ὑ. τῆς ὀροφῆς IG12.373.246; ὑ. τοῦ ἀγάλματος ib.264; ὄρος τὸ ὑ. Τεγέης Hdt.6.105; τὰ ὑ. κεφαλῆς the higher ground, X.Ages.2.20; Ἰονίας ὑ. ἁλὸς οἰκέων on the Ionian sea, i.e. on its shores, Pi.N.7.65; λιμὴν καὶ πόλις ὑ. αὐτοῦ κεῖται Th.1.46, cf. 6.4, D.C.40.14: of relative geographical position, above, farther inland, οἰκέοντες ὑ. Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ μεσόγαιαν Hdt.1.175; ἐξ Αἰθιοπίας τῆς ὑ. Αἰγύπτου Th.2.48; τοῖς ὑ. Χερρονήσου Θρᾳξίν X.An.2.6.2; ὑ. Μασσαλίας Plb.2.14.8, cf. 5.73.3, al.: in Hellenistic Gr. the acc. is commoner in this sense, v. infr. B. I.

b. of ships at sea, off a place, Th.1.112, 8.95; ναυμαχίην τὴν ὑ. Μιλήτου γενομένην Hdt.6.25; ὑ. τούτου (sc. Φαλήρου) ἀνακωχεύσαντες τὰς νέας ib.116.

2. in a state of motion, over, across, κῦμα νηὸς ὑ. τοίχων καταβήσεται Il.15.382; τὸν δ' ὑ. οὐδοῦ βάντα προσηύδα Od.17.575; πηδῶντος ..τάφρων ὕ. S.Aj.1279; ὑ. θαλάσσης καὶ χθονὸς ποτωμένοις A.Ag.576; ἐκκυβιστᾶν ὑ. [τῶν ξιφῶν] X.Smp.2.11.

3. over, beyond, ἐν Κρήτῃ εὐρείῃ τηλοῦ ὑ. πόντου Od.13.257.

II. metaph., in defence of, on behalf of, τεῖχος ἐτειχίσσαντο νεῶν ὕ. Il.7.449; ἑκατόμβην ῥέξαι ὑ. Δαναῶν 1.444: generally, for the prosperity or safety of, τὰ ἱερὰ ὑ. τῆς Εὐβοίας θῦσαι IG12.39.65, cf. 45.5; ἱερὰ θυόμενα ὑ. τῆς πόλεως X.Mem.2.2.13; ἐπιτελεῖν τὰς θυσίας ὑ. τε ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν τέκνων UPZ14.27 (ii B.C.); in dedications (always with reference to living persons), Σμικύθη μ' ἀνέθηκεν ..εὐξαμένη ..ὑ. παίδων καὶ ἑαυτῆς IG12.524, cf. 22.4403, 42(1).569 (Epid.); Ἀρτέμιδι Σωτείρᾳ ὑ. βασιλέως Πτολεμαίου Ἐπικράτης Ἀθηναῖος OGI18 (Egypt, iii B. C.), cf. 365 (Amasia, ii B. C.), al.; ὑ. τῆς εἰς αἰῶνα διαμονῆς Ἀντωνείνου Καίσαρος ib.702.3 (Egypt, ii A.D.); ὑ. τῆς τύχης ..Ἀντωνείνου Σεβαστοῦ Εὐσεβοῦς ib.703.2 (Ptolemais, ii A.D.); ὑ. σωτηρίας τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν ..Ἀντωνείνου ib.706 (Egypt, ii/iii A. D.); εὑδόντων ὕ. φρούρημα A.Eu.705; ὑ. τινὸς κινδυνεύειν, μάχεσθαι, βοηθεῖν, Th.2.20, Pl.Lg.642c, X.An.3.5.6; ἧς ἔθνῃσχ' ὕ. S.Tr.708; ὑ. γῆς τῆς Ἀθηναίων ναυμαχέειν Hdt.8.70; ὑ. τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀμῦναι Pl.Lg.692d; ἀμυνῶ ὑ. ἱερῶν καὶ ὁσίων Jusj. ap. Poll.8.105; νῦν ὑ. πάντων ἀγών A.Pers. 405; ὑ. δόξης τελευτήσαντες D.23.210, cf. Isoc.6.93; πάνθ' ὑ. ὑμῶν φανήσεται πράξας Χαβρίας, καὶ τὴν τελευτὴν αὐτὴν τοῦ βίου πεποιημένος οὐχ ὑ. ἄλλου τινός in your interests, D.20.80, cf. 83; ὑ. τῆς Ἀσίας στρατηγήσας Isoc.4.154; of things sought, ὑ. τοῦ νεκροῦ ὠθισμὸς ἐγένετο πολύς Hdt.7.225; ἀφίκετο ὑ. γενεᾶς, ὑ. φωνᾶς, ὑ. τοῦ θησαυροῦ, IG42 (1).121.10,42, 123.11 (Epid., iv B.C.); γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς Ἡρακλέους πόλιν ὑ. τῆς οἰκίας UPZ68.3 (ii B. C.); sts. even of the thing to be averted, ἱκέσιον λόχον δουλοσύνας ὕ. about slavery, A.Th.111 (lyr.), cf. Aeschin.3.10.

2. for, instead of, in the name of, ὑ. ἑαυτοῦ τι προϊδεῖν on his own behalf, Th.1.141; ὑ. τινὸς ἀποκρίνεσθαι Pl.R.590a; προλέγειν X.An.7.7.3; ἐπεὶ οὖν σὺ σιωπᾷς, ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑ. σοῦ καὶ ὑ. ἡμῶν Id.Cyr.3.3.14, cf. S.El.554; ὑ. Ζήνωνος πράσσων as Zeno's representative, PSI4.389.8 (iii B. C.); ἔγραψεν ὑ. αὐτῶν διὰ τὸ φάσκειν αὐτοὺς μὴ εἰδέναι γράμματα PGrenf.2.17.9 (ii B. C.); θεάσασθε ὃν τρόπον ὑμεῖς ἐστρατηγηκότες πάντ' ἔσεσθ' ὑ. Φιλίππου as though by commission from P., D.3.6; so in other dialects c. acc., v. infr. B. v.

3. in adjurations, with verbs of entreaty, entreat one as representative of another, τῶν ὕ. ἐνθάδ' ἐγὼ γουνάζομαι οὐ παρεόντων, i. e. I entreat you as they would if they were here, Il.15.665, cf. 660; then more metaph., by, λίσσομ' ὑ. ψυχῆς (as you value your life) καὶ γούνων σῶν τε τοκήων 22.338, cf. 24.466; λίσσομ' ὑ. θυέων καὶ δαίμονος ..σῆς τ' αὐτοῦ κεφαλῆς καὶ ἑταίρων Od.15.261; λίσσου' ὑ. μακάρων σέο τ' αὐτῆς ἠδὲ τοκήων A.R.3.701; ὑ. ξενίου λίσσεται ὔμμε Διός in the name of Zeus, AP7.499.2 (Theaet.); so Aeol. περ (v. περί A. V).

4. of the cause or motive, for, because of, by reason of, ἀλγέων ὕ. E.Supp.1125 (lyr.); ὑ. παθέων Id.Hipp.159 (lyr.); ἔριδος ὕ. Id.Andr.490 (lyr.); of punishment or reward, for, on account of, τοῖσιν ἄγουσιν κλαύμαθ' ὑπάρξει βραδυτῆτος ὕ. S.Ant.932 (anap.), cf. Isoc.11.39, Lys.3.43, 4.20, 13.41,42, X.An.1.3.4; ἀτῆθθαι ὑ. τῶ πατρὸς τὰ πατρώϊα the father's property shall pay the fine for the father, Leg.Gort.11.42; ἀποτεισάτω ὁ δεσπότης ὑ. τοῦ δούλου PHal. 1.198 (iii B. C.); τοῦτον (viz. a runaway slave) ὃς ἂν ἀναγάγῃ, λήψεται ὅσα καὶ ὑ. τοῦ προγεγραμμένου UPZ121.24 (ii B. C.); τὸ κατεσκευασμένον ὑ. τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας Ἰσιδεῖον as a thank-offering for .., Sammelb.3926.12 (i B. C.); ὑ. ὧν ἐτιμήσαμεν αὐτοὺς ταῖς μεγίσταις τιμαῖς Isoc.9.57; ἀποδοῦναι χάριν ὑ. ὧν ..ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους εὐεργέτησεν Id.4.56; of payment, ἡμιωβέλιον ὑ. ἑκάστου IG12.140.2; μέτρησον Ποσειδωνίῳ ὑ. Ἡρακλείδου on account of H., i.e. debiting H.'s account, PFay.16 (i B. C.); μετρήσω ὑ. σοῦ εἰς τὸ δημόσιον for the credit of your account, PAmh.2.88.22 (ii A. D.); ὑ. λαογραφίας Ostr.Bodl. iii 80 (i A. D.); ὑ. λόγου ἀννώνης Ostr.1479 (iii A. D.); ὑ. ὧν ἔμαθεν καταβαλεῖν μισθόν Jul.Or.3.126a, cf. Ael.NA3.39.

5. ὑ. τοῦ μή c. inf., for the purpose of preventing or avoiding, ὑ. τοῦ μηδένα ..βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν X.Hier.4.3; ὑ. τοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν τὸ προσταττόμενον Isoc.7.64, cf. 12.80; τὴν πόλιν ἐκλιπεῖν ὑπέμειναν ..ὑ. τοῦ μὴ τὸ κελευόμενον ποιῆσαι D.18.204: also without μή, for the sake of, ὑ. τοῦτοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτάττειν ἐθέλειν ἀποθνῄσκειν to be ready to die for the sake of .., Isoc.6.94; μὴ τοσαύτην ποιεῖσθαι σπουδὴν ὑ. τοῦ βλάψαι τοὺς πολεμίους ἡλίκην ὑ. τοῦ μηδὲν αὐτοὺς παθεῖν δεινόν Plb.3.94.9, cf. 5.32.1, 5.86.8: this constr. is found also in signf. A. 111.

III. concerning, ὑ. σέθεν αῐσχε' ἀκούω Il.6.524; κᾶρυξ ἀνέειπέ νιν ἀγγέλλων Ἱέρωνος ὑ. καλλινίκου ἅρμασι Pi.P.1.32; Σκύθαι μὲν ὧδε ὑ. σφέων τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς χώρης τῆς κατύπερθε λέγουσι Hdt.4.8; τὰ λεγόμενα ὑ. ἑκάστων v.l. in Id.2.123; τοὺς ὑ. τοῦ αἰῶνος φόβους Epicur.Sent.20; διαλεχθῆναι, ἀγορεύειν ὑ. τινός, Pl.Ap.39e, Lg.776e; περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω, ὑ. ὧν δέ μοι προσήκει λέγειν ..Lys.24.4, cf. 21, 16.20; ὑ. οὗ ..ὁμολογῶ ..διαφέρεσθαι τούτοις D.18.31; βουλευομένων ὑ. τοῦ ποίαν τινὰ [εἰρήνην ποιητέον] Id.19.94; ἔγραψάς μοι ὑ. τῶν καμίνων PCair.Zen. 273.2 (iii B. C.); ἐνεκάλουν ὑ. σύκων PSI6.554.24 (iii B. C.); ἐπεδώκαμέν σοι ὑπόμνημα ὑ. τοῦ μὴ εἰληφέναι τὴν ..ὄλυραν UPZ46.4 (ii B. C.); συλλαλήσαντες ὑ. τοῦ τὴν πόλιν ἐνδοῦναι τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις Plb.1.43.1; θροῦς ὑ. τοῦ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ἐκπέμπειν talk of sending L., Id.5.18.5, cf. 6; γνώμην ὑ. τῆς κοινῆς [δόξης] Isoc.6.93; ὑ. τῶν τούτου λῃτουργιῶν ..ὡδὶ γιγνώσκω D.21.152; ἐκ τῶν ἐμφανῶν ὑ. τῶν ἀφανῶν πιστεύειν Jul.Or. 4.138b; with vbs. expressing emotion, ποίας ..γυναικὸς ἐκφοβεῖσθ' ὕ.; S.OT989; εἰ τὰ παρὰ σοὶ καλῶς ἔχει, θάρρει ὑ. ἐκείνων X.Cyr.7.1.17; οὐδεὶς ὑ. μου δαιμόνων μηνίεται κατασφαγείσης A.Eu.101 (approaching sense 11.1).

B. WITH ACCUS.,

I. of Place in reference to motion, over, beyond, freq. in Hom., e.g. ὑ. ὦμον ἤλυθ' ἀκωκή Il.5.16, cf. 851; ἀλάλησθε ..ὑπεἰρ ἅλα Od.3.73, cf. 7.135, al., A.Eu.250, S.Ant.1145 (lyr.); ὑ. τὸν δρύφακτον ὑπερτιθέμενοι Plb.1.22.10: without such reference, ὑ. Ἡρακλείας στήλας ἔξω κατοικοῦσι Pl.Criti.108e, cf. Jul.Or.1.6d; τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑ. τὸ ὑγρὸν ὑπερίσχον Plb.3.84.9; τῶν ὑ. τὸ Σαρδῷον πέλαγος τόπων Id.2.14.6; ὑ. Μασσαλίαν Id.2.16.1; λόφον κείμενον ὑ. τὴν ὁδόν Id.2.27.5, cf. 3.47.2, al.; τῶν συριῶν ὑ. τὴν σκηνὴν οὐσῶν PHib. 1.38.7 (iii B. C.); οὐλὴ ..ὑ. ὀφρὺν δεξιάν PCair.Zen.76.13 (iii B. C.); τὸ ὑ. τὸν ἔσχατον ..σπόνδυλον Sor.1.102; ὑ. τὸν οὐρανόν Jul.Or. 4.135a.

II. of Measure, above, exceeding, beyond, ὑ. τὸν ἀλαθῆ λόγον Pi.O.1.28; ὑ. τὸ βέλτιστον A.Ag.378 (lyr.); ὑ. ἐλπίδα S.Ant.366 (lyr.); ὑ. δύναμιν Th.6.16; μεγέθει ὑ. τοὺς ἐν τῇ νηί̈ Pl.R. 488b; ὑ. ἄνθρωπον εἶναι Id.Lg.839d, Luc.Vit.Auct.2; ὑ. ἡμᾶς beyond our powers, Pl.Prm.128b; ὑ. τὴν ἀξίαν E.HF146; ὑ. τὴν οὐσίαν Pl. R.372b; ὑ. τὸ ὕδωρ (cf. ὕδωρ 1.4) Luc.Pr.Im.29.

b. after Comp., than, δυνατώτεροι ὑ. ..LXX Jd.18.26: so after Posit., τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὑ. αὐτόν better than he, ib.3 Ki.2.32.

2. of transgression, in violation of, ὑ. αἶσαν, opp. κατ' αἶσαν, Il.3.59, al.; ὑ. Διὸς αἶσαν 17.321; ὑ. μοῖραν 20.336; ὑ. μόρον (or ὑπέρμορον) ib.30; ὑ. θεόν 17.327; ὑ. ὅρκια 3.299, al.

III. of Number, above, upwards of, τὰ ὑ. δέκα μνᾶς [ξυμβόλαια] IG12.41.23, cf. 22.48, al.; ὑ. τεσσεράκοντα ἄνδρας Hdt.5.64; ὑ. τετταράκοντα (sc. ἔτη) X.HG5.4.13; ὑ. τὰ στρατεύσιμα ἔτη γεγονόσι Id.Cyr.1.2.4; ὑ. ἥμισυ more than half, ib.3.3.47.

IV. of Time, beyond, i.e. before, earlier than, ὁ ὑ. τὰ Μηδικὰ πόλεμος Th.1.41; ὑ. τὴν φθοράν Pl.Ti.23c.

V. in some dialects, in sense A. 11.1,2, on behalf of, ὑ. τὰν πόλιν SIG437 (Delph., iii B. C.), al., cf. IG42(1).109iv113 (Epid., iii B. C.), 5(2).438-40,442 (Megalop., ii B. C.), 42(1).380,665 (Epid., i A. D.), IPE4.71.10 (Cherson., ii A. D.); in sense A. 111, concerning, ἐπικράνθη μοι ὑ. ὑμᾶς LXX Ru.1.13.

C. WITH DAT., only Arc., μαχόμενοι ὑ. τᾷ τᾶς πόλιος ἐλευθερίᾳ fighting for .., IG5(2).16 (Tegea, iii B. C.).

D. POSITION: ὑπέρ may follow its Subst., but then by anastrophe becomes ὕπερ, Il.5.339, Od.19.450, al., S.OT1444, etc.

E. AS ADV., over-much, above measure, ὑπὲρ μὲν ἄγαν E.Med. 627 (lyr.); also written ὑπεράγαν, Str.3.2.9, Ael.NA3.38, etc.; cf. ὑπέρφευ: as a predicate, διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσι; ὑπὲρ ἐγώ I am more [than they], 2 Ep.Cor.11.23.

F. IN COMPOS. ὑπέρ signifies over, above, in all relations, e. g.,

1. of Place, over, beyond, as in ὑπεράνω, ὑπέργειος, ὑπερβαίνω, ὑπερπόντιος.

2. of doing a thing for or in defence of, as in ὑπερμαχέω, ὑπερασπίζω, ὑπεραλγέω.

3. above measure, as in ὑπερήφανος, ὑπερφίαλος.