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ὑπερβάλλω, fut. -βαλῶ, Ep. -βαλέω Od.11.597: Ep. aor. 2 ὑπειρέβαλον Il.23.637:—
throw over or beyond a mark, overshoot, ὑπέρβαλε σήματα πάντων Il.23.843; τόσσον παντὸς ἀγῶνος (sc. σήματα) ὑπέρβαλε ib.847; δουρὶ ὑ. Φυλῆα beat him in throwing with it, ib.637.

2. ὅτε μέλλοι ἄκρον [λόφον] ὑπερβαλέειν force the stone over the top, Od. l.c.

3. intr., run beyond, overrun the scent, of hounds, X.Cyn.6.20.

4. outstrip or pass, in racing, τινας S.El.716.

5. Med., throw a stone over one's head, SIG1071 (Olympia).

II. in various metaph. senses:

1. outdo, excel, surpass, overpower, δέδοικα μὴ πρὶν πόνοις ὑπερβάλῃ με γῆρας E.Fr.453.5 (lyr.): c. gen., Pi.Fr.33; βροντῆς ὑπερβάλλοντα κτύπον A.Pr.923.

2. go beyond, exceed, μήτ' ἄρ' ὑπερβάλλων βοὸς ὁπλὴν μήτ' ἀπολείπων Hes.Op.489; ὑ. πόσιος μέτρον Thgn.479; τὴν τοῦ μετρίου φύσιν Pl.Plt.283e; ὑ. τὰ ἱκανά X.Hier.4.8: of Time, ὑ. ἑκατὸν ἔτεα exceed 100 years, in age, Hdt.3.23; ὑ. τὰς τρεῖς ἡμέρας delay longer than .., Hp.VC14; ὑ. τὸν χρόνον exceed the time, i. e. be too late, X.HG5.3.21; ὑ. τὸν καιρόν exceed reasonable bounds, Democr.235, D.23.122: in number, intensity, etc., ἡδοναὶ ὑ. λύπας Pl.Lg.734b, cf. Prt.356b (Pass.): c. dat. modi, exceed one in .., πάντας ἀνθρώπους τόλμῃ καὶ μιαρίᾳ X.HG7.3.6; ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους ὠμότητι D.18.275: abs., ὑ. πρὸς ἀρετήν Pl.Lg.945c.

b. c. gen. pro acc., ἆρα λύπῃ ὑ. τὸ ἀδικεῖν τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι; Id.Grg.475c, cf. Lg.734a; ὑ. τῆς συμμετρίας Arist.Pol.1284b8, cf. HA503b22.

3. abs., exceed, αἱ μέσαι ἕξεις πρὸς μὲν τὰς ἐλλείψεις ὑπερβάλλουσι compared with their defects are in excess, Id.EN1108b17; exceed all bounds, A. Pers.291, E.Ba.785, Th.7.67, Pl.Tht.180a; οὐχ ὑπερβαλών keeping within bounds, Pi.N.7.66; μή νυν ὑπέρβαλλ', ἀλλ' ἐναισίμως φέρε E. Alc.1077: c. dat. modi, ὑ. τῇ μοχθηρίᾳ Ar.Pl.109; ἀδυναμίᾳ τοῦ δοξάσαι Pl.Tht.192c, cf. X.Mem.4.3.7; ἀνοίᾳ D.8.16.

b. freq. in part. ὑπερβάλλων, ουσα, ον, exceeding, excessive, ὑ. δαπάνη X.Hier.11.2; ἡδονή, ἔπαινοι, Pl.R.402e, Phdr.240e; θεάματα ταῖς δαπάναις ὑ. Isoc.4.45, cf. Pl.Lg.899a; οἱ ὑπερβάλλοντες, opp. οἱ καταδεέστεροι, Isoc.9.13; τὰ ὑ. an over-high estate, E.Med.127 (anap.); φεύγειν τὰ ὑ. ἑκατέρωσε extremes, Pl.R.619a; τὸ ὑ. αὐτῶν such part of them as goes beyond that, Th.2.35; οἱ ὑ. [λόγοι], title of work by Thrasymachus (Fr. 7), perh. overpowering arguments.

4. overbid or outbid at auction, ἀλλήλους Lys.22.8, POxy.1633.5 (iii A. D.); τὸ ὑπερβάλλον the overbid, PPetr.3p.195 (iii B. C.): abs., go on further and further, in making offers, προέβαινε τοῖσι χρήμασι ὑπερβάλλων he went on bidding more and more, Hdt.5.51; ᾔτει τοσαῦτα ὑπερβάλλων Th.8.56, cf. And.1.133:—
Pass., ἕνεκα τοῦ-βεβλῆσθαι τὴν οἰκίαν POxy.513.25 (ii A. D.); v. infr. B. 1.3.

5. Adv. ὑπερβαλλόντως exceedingly, Pl.R.492b, Epicur. Nat.2.2, SIG685.36 (Crete, ii B. C.), Phld.Lib.p.7O., 2 Ep.Cor.11.23; written ὑπερβαλόντως in IG12(7).410.12 (Amorgos); opp. μετρίως, Isoc.1.28.

III. pass over, cross mountains, rivers, and the like , πρῶνα A.Ag.307; κορυφάς Id.Pr.722; γῆς ὅρους E.Or.443; τὰς Ἄλπεις εἰς τὴν Ἰταλίαν Str.7.2.3: c. gen., θριγκοῦ τοῦδ' ὑ. ποδί E.Ion 1321 (where Dobree suggested θριγκοὺς τούσδ'): metaph., surmount, τάσδ' ὑ. τύχας Id.Alc.795.

b. of ships, double a headland, ὑ. Μαλέην Hdt.7.168; τὴν ἄκραν Th.8.104.

c. abs., cross over, ἐς τὴν ἄνω Μακεδονίην Hdt.8.137, cf. X.An.4.6.10; πρὸς τοὺς Θρᾷκας ib. 7.5.1; κατὰ λόφους τινάς ib.6.5.7.

2. of water, run over, beat over, c. gen., ὑπερβάλλει δὲ θάλασσα ἀμφοτέρων τοίχων Thgn.673; of rivers, overflow, τὰς ἀρούρας Hdt.2.111: abs., of a kettle, boil over, Id.1.59; of the sea, ἢν δ' ὑπερβάλῃ ..πόντος E.Tr.691.

3. of the sun, to be very hot, Hdt.4.184.

4. exceed, i. e. overlap, a base, Euc.6.29; cf. ὑπερβολή IV.—
Note, the case that follows is almost always the acc.; the gen. occurs in a few exceptional instances, v. supr. 11.2 b, 111.1 and 2.

B. Med., with pf. Pass., = A. 11, outdo, overcome, conquer, τινα Hdt.5.124, Ar.Eq.758 (lyr.), Nu.1035; τὴν βασιλέος δύναμιν Hdt.8.24; μάχῃ ὑ. τινά E.Or.691; φίλτροις ὑ. τινά S.Tr.584, cf. Ar.Eq. 413: abs., to be conqueror, Hdt.6.9, 7.168.

2. exceed, surpass, τινα D.19.342, etc.; τοὺς ἀπ' αἰῶνος OGI542.11 (Ancyra, ii A. D.); πάντας τῷ ὕψεϊ καὶ τῷ μεγάθεϊ Hdt.2.175, cf. 110; τινὰ ἀναιδείᾳ Ar. Eq.409; θωπείαις ib.890; εἴς τι Pl.Criti.115d; ἔν τινι Str.1.1.2.

b. δόσι χρημάτων ὑ. surpass all, Hdt.1.61; ἀρετῇ Id.9.71; ὑπερβαλλόμενος πλήθεϊ with overpowering numbers, Id.3.21: pf. part. Pass., ὑπερβεβλημένη γυνή an excellent, surpassing woman, E.Alc.153; φύσις ὑπερβεβλ. Pl.R.558b; ταφῆς τῆς μὲν ὑπερβεβλ., τῆς δὲ ἐλλειπούσης Id.Lg.719d: c. gen., γόγγροι τῶν παρ' ἡμῖν ὑπερβεβλ. κατὰ τὸ μέγεθος Str.3.2.7.

3. overbid, outbid (v. supr. A. 11.4), τινὰ χρήμασιν Pl. Phdr.232c, cf. X.Cyr.5.3.32.

4. outflank, τὸ κέρας τῶν πολεμίων Ascl.Tact.10.2, cf.18.

II. put off, postpone, τὴν ἀπόδοσιν Hdt.4.9; τὴν συμβολήν Id.9.45; εἰς ἄλλον καιρόν Phld.Rh.1.223S.; but ἢν ὑπερβάλωνται ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ..συμβολὴν μὴ ποιεύμενοι if they let that day pass without fighting, Hdt.9.51: abs., delay, linger, Id.3.71,76, 7.206; εἰς αὖθις ὑπερβαλέσθαι Pl.Phdr.254d, cf. Arist.Rh.Al. 1420a8, 1438b6.