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verto (vorto), ti, sum, 3 (inf. vortier, Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 48; Lucr. 1, 710; 2, 927; 5, 1199 al.), v. a. and n. [Sanscr. root vart-, to apply one's self, turn; cf. vart-ukas, round].

I. Act., to turn, to turn round or about (syn.: verso, contorqueo).

A. Lit.: (luna) eam partem, quaecumque est ignibus aucta, Ad speciem vertit nobis, Lucr. 5, 724: speciem quo, id. 4, 242: ora huc et huc, Hor. Epod. 4, 9: terga, Ov. Tr. 3, 5, 6: gradu discedere verso, id. M. 4, 338: verso pede, id. ib. 8, 869: pennas, i. e. to fly away, Prop. 2, 24, 22 (3, 19, 6): cardinem, Ov. M. 14, 782: fores tacito cardine, Tib. 1, 6, 12: cadum, to turn or tip up, Hor. C. 3, 29, 2: versā pulvis inscribitur hastā, inverted, Verg. A. 1, 478: verte hac te, puere, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 29; cf.: verti me a Minturnis Arpinum versus, Cic. Att. 16, 10, 1: cum haesisset descendenti (virgini) stola, vertit se et recollegit, Plin. Ep. 4, 11, 9: ante tuos quotiens verti me, perfida, postes, Prop. 1, 16, 43: Pompeiani se verterunt et loco cesserunt, turned about, wheeled about, fled, Caes. B. C. 3, 51; cf.: vertere terga, to turn one's back, run away, betake one's self to flight, id. B. G. 1, 53; 3, 21; id. B. C. 1, 47; 3, 63 fin.; Liv. 1, 14, 9; cf. also: hostem in fugam, to put to flight, rout, id. 30, 33, 16; Auct. B. Afr. 17: iter retro, Liv. 28, 3, 1: hiems (piscis) ad hoc mare, Hor. Epod. 2, 52: fenestrae in viam versae, turned or directed towards, looking towards, Liv. 1, 41, 4; cf.: mare ad occidentem versum, id. 36, 15, 9: Scytharum gens ab oriente ad septentrionem se vertit, Curt. 7, 7, 3: (Maeander) nunc ad fontes, nunc in mare versus, Ov. M. 8, 165: terram aratro, to turn up or over, to plough, etc., Hor. S. 1, 1, 28: ferro terram, Verg. G. 1, 147: glaebas (aratra), Ov. M. 1, 425; 5, 477: solum bidentibus, Col. 4, 5: agros bove, Prop. 3, 7, 43 (4, 6, 43): collem, Col. 3, 13, 8: freta lacertis (in rowing), Verg. A. 5, 141: ex illā pecuniā magnam partem ad se vortit, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57.—Mid.: vertier ad lapidem, to turn or incline one's self towards, Lucr. 5, 1199: congressi ... ad caedem vertuntur, Liv. 1, 7, 2; so, versi in fugam hostes, Tac. H. 2, 26; cf.: Philippis versa acies retro, Hor. C. 3, 4, 26: sinit hic violentis omnia verti Turbinibus, to whirl themselves about, Lucr. 5, 503: magnus caeli si vortitur orbis, id. 5, 510: vertitur interea caelum, revolves, Verg. A. 2, 250: squamarum serie a caudā ad caput versā, reaching, Plin. 28, 8, 30, 119.—

B. Trop.

1. In gen., to turn: ne ea, quae reipublicae causa egerit, in suam contumeliam vertat, Caes. B. C. 1, 8: in suam rem litem vertendo, Liv. 3, 72, 2: usum ejus (olei) ad luxuriam vertere Graeci, Plin. 15, 4, 5, 19; cf.: aliquid in rem vertere, turn to account, make profitable, Dig. 15, 3, 1 sqq.: edocere, quo sese vertant sortes, Enn. Trag. v. 64 Vahl.; Verg. A. 1, 671: ne sibi vitio verterent, quod abesset a patriā, Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1: idque omen in Macedonum metum verterunt Tyrii, Curt. 4, 2, 13: in religionem vertentes comitia biennic habita, making a matter of religious scruple, Liv. 5, 14, 2: aquarum insolita magnitudo in religionem versa, id. 30, 38, 10; cf. id. 26, 11, 3: id ipsum quod iter belli esset obstructum, in prodigium et omen imminentium cladium vertebatur, Tac. H. 1, 86 fin.: vertere in se Cotyi data, to appropriate, id. A. 2, 64: perii! quid agam? quo me vertam? Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 1: quo se verteret, non habebat, Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 74; id. Div. 2, 72, 149: Philippus totus in Persea versus, inclined towards him, Liv. 40, 5, 9: toti in impetum atque iram versi, id. 25, 16, 19: si bellum omne eo vertat, id. 26, 12, 13: di vortant bene, Quod agas, cause to turn out well, prosper, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 121; cf. infra, II. B.; so, in melius somnia, Tib. 3, 4, 95.—

2. In partic.

a. To turn, i. e. to change, aller, transform (syn. muto): Juppiter In Amphitruonis vortit sese imaginem, Plaut. Am. prol. 121: in anginam ego nunc me velim vorti, id. Most. 1. 3, 61: omnes natura cibos in corpora viva Vertit, Lucr. 2, 880: vertunt se fluvii frondes et pabula laeta In pecudes; vertunt pecudes in corpora nostra Naturam, id. 2, 875 sq.; cf.: cum terra in aquam se vertit, Cic. N. D. 3, 12, 31: verte omnis tete in facies, Verg. A. 12, 891: ego, quae memet in omnia verti, id. ib. 7, 309: tot sese vertit in ora, id. ib. 7, 328: inque deum de bove versus erat, Ov. F. 5, 616: Auster in Africum se vertit, Caes. B. C. 3, 26 fin.; cf. Liv. 30, 24, 7: semina malorum in contrarias partes se vertere, Cic. Div. 2, 14, 33: omnia versa et mutata in pejorem partem, id. Rosc. Am. 36, 103: cur nunc tua quisquam Vertere jussa potest, Verg. A. 10, 35: hic continentiam et moderationem in superbiam ac lasciviam vertit, Curt. 6, 6, 1; cf.: fortuna hoc militiae probrum vertit in gloriam, id. 9, 10, 28: versus civitatis status, Tac. A. 1, 4: versis ad prospera fatis, Ov. H. 16, 89: solum, to change one's country, i. e. to emigrate or go into exile, Cic. Balb. 11, 28; Amm. 15, 3, 11 et saep.; v. solum. —With abl. (rare and poet.): nullā tamen alite verti Dignatur, Ov. M. 10, 157; cf. muto.—Prov.: in fumum et cinerem vertere, to turn into smoke, dissipate, Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 39.—Mid.: omnia vertuntur: certe vertuntur amores, Prop. 2, 8, 7 (9): saevus apertam In rabiem coepit verti jocus, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 149.—

b. To exchange, interchange: nos divitem istum meminimus adque iste pauperes nos; vorterunt sese memoriae, Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 11; cf.: vorsis gladiis depugnarier, id. Cas. 2, 5, 36.—

c. Of literary productions, to turn into another language, to translate (syn.: transfero, interpretor, reddo): Philemo scripsit, Plautus vortit barbare, Plaut. Trin. prol. 19: si sic verterem Platonem, ut verteruntnostri poëtae fabulas, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 7: verti etiam multa de Graecis, id. Tusc. 2, 11, 26: annales Acilianos ex Graeco in Latinum sermonem vertit, Liv. 25, 39, 12.—

d. To ply: stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo, i. e. stimulates the fury, Verg. A. 6, 101.—

e. In partic., like our to turn upside down, i. e. to overturn, overthrow, subvert, destroy (= everto): Callicratidas cum multa fecisset egregie, vertit ad extremum omnia, Cic. Off. 1, 24, 84: agerent, verterent cuncta, Tac. H. 1, 2; id. A. 2, 42; 3, 36: Cycnum Vi multā, Ov. M. 12, 139: fluxas Phrygiae res fundo, Verg. A. 10, 88; 1, 20; 2, 652: vertere ab imo moenia Trojae, id. ib. 5, 810: Ilion fatalis incestusque judex ... vertit in pulverem, Hor. C. 3, 3, 20: proceras fraxinos, id. ib. 3, 25, 16: ab imo regna, Sen. Hippol. 562: Penates, id. Troad. 91: puppem, Luc. 3, 650: fortunas, Amm. 28, 3, 1.—

f. Mid., from the idea of turning round in a place, to be engaged in, to be in a place or condition; also to turn, rest, or depend upon a thing: jam homo in mercaturā vortitur, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 109: res in periculo vortitur, id. Merc. 1, 2, 12; Phaedr. 2, 8, 19; so, res vertitur in majore discrimine, Liv. 6, 36, 7: ipse catervis Vertitur in mediis, Verg. A. 11, 683: omnia in unius potestate ac moderatione vertentur, Cic. Verr. 1, 7, 20; so, spes civitatis in dictatore, Liv. 4, 31, 4: totum id in voluntate Philippi, id. 37, 7, 8: causa in jure, Cic. Brut. 39, 145: hic victoria, Verg. A. 10, 529: cum circa hanc consultationem disceptatio omnis verteretur, Liv. 36, 7, 1: puncto saepe temporis maximarum rerum momenta verti, id. 3, 27, 7.—Impers.: vertebatur, utrum manerent in Achaico concilio Lacedaemonii, an, etc., Liv. 39, 48, 3.—

g. To ascribe, refer: quae fuerunt populis magis exitio quam fames morbique, quaeque alia in deum iras velut ultima malorum vertunt, Liv. 4, 9, 3 Weissenb. ad loc.: cum omnium secundorum adversorumque in deos verterent, id. 28, 11, 1.—

h. = considero; exercitum majorum more vortere, Sall. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 5, 408 dub. (Sall. H. inc. 51 Dietsch ad loc.).

II. Neutr., to turn one's self, direct one's way, to turn about, to turn.

A. Lit.: depulsi aemulatione alio vertunt, Tac. A. 1, 18: eoque audaciae provectum ut verteret, etc., id. ib. 4, 10: utinam mea vocula dominae vertat in auriculas! Prop. 1, 16, 28: versuros extemplo in fugam omnes ratus, Liv. 38, 26, 8 (but in Lucr. 5, 617 the correct read. is cancri se ut vortat).—

B. Trop., to turn, change, etc.: jam verterat fortuna, Liv. 5, 49, 5: libertatem aliorum in suam vertisse servitutem conquerebantur, id. 2, 3, 3: totae solidam in glaciem vertere lacunae, Verg. G. 3, 365: verterat pernicies in accusatorem, Tac. A. 11, 37: quod si esset factum, detrimentum in bonum verteret, Caes. B. C. 3, 73 fin.: ea ludificatio veri in verum vertit, Liv. 26, 6, 16: talia incepta, ni in consultorem vertissent, reipublicae pestem factura, against, Sall. H. inc. 89 Dietsch: neque inmerito suum ipsorum exemplum in eos versurum, Liv. 7, 38, 6: si malus est, male res vortunt, quas agit, turn out badly, Plaut. Pers. 4, 1, 5; so, quae res tibi vertat male, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 37: quod bene vertat, castra Albanos Romanis castris jungere jubet (= cum bonis omnibus), Liv. 1, 28, 1; 3, 62, 5; 3, 35, 8: quod bene verteret, Curt. 5, 4, 12; 7, 11, 14: hos illi (quod nec vertat bene), mittimus haedos, Verg. E. 9, 6.—

b. Annus, mensis vertens, the course or space of a year, of a month: anno vertente sine controversiā (petisses), Cic. Quint. 12, 40; so, anno vertente, id. N. D. 2, 20, 53; Nep. Ages. 4, 4; cf.: apparuisse numen deorum intra finem anni vertentis, Cic. Phil. 13, 10, 22: tu si hanc emeris, Numquam hercle hunc mensem vortentem, credo, servibit tibi, Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 76; Macr. S. 1, 14.—

(b). Pregn.: annus vertens, the great year or cycle of the celestial bodies (a space of 15,000 solar years), Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24.—Hence, ver-sus (vors-), or (much less freq.) ver-sum (vors-), adv., turned in the direction of, towards a thing; usu. after the name of a place to which motion is directed (orig. a part., turned towards, facing, etc., and so always in Livy; cf. Liv. 1, 18, 6 Weissenb. ad loc.; 1, 41, 4; 9, 2, 15).

A. Form versus (vors-).

1. After ad and acc.: T. Labienum ad Oceanum versus ... proficisci jubet, Caes. B. G. 6, 33: ad Alpes versus, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 15, 2: ad Cercinam insulam versus, Auct. B. Afr. 8, 3: ad Cordubam versus, Auct. B. Hisp. 11: modo ad Urbem, modo in Galliam versus, Sall. C. 56, 4. —

2. After in and acc.: in agrum versus, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 10: in forum versus, Cic. Lael. 25, 96: in Arvernos versus, Caes. B. G. 7, 8: si in urbem versus venturi erunt, Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 78 (82), 3.—

3. After acc. alone (class. only with names of towns and small islands): verti me a Minturnis Arpinum versus, Cic. Att. 16, 10, 1: Brundisium versus, id. Fam. 11, 27, 3: Ambraciam versus, Caes. B. C. 3, 36: Massiliam versus, id. ib. 2, 3: Narbonem versus, id. B. G. 7, 7.—

4. After other advv.: deorsum versus, Cato, R. R. 156, 4: sursum versus, Cic. Or. 39, 135: dimittit quoquo versus legationes, Caes. B. G. 7, 4: ut quaedam vocabula utroque versus dicantur, Gell. 5, 12, 10; cf. the adverbs deorsum, sursum, etc.—

B. Form versum (vors-).

1. After ad and acc.: animadvertit fugam ad se versum fieri, Sall. J. 58, 4.—

2. After other advv.: cunas rursum vorsum trahere, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 60 (63): lumbis deorsum versum pressis, Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 5: vineam sursum vorsum semper ducito, Cato, R. R. 33, 1: cum undique versum circumfluat, Gell. 12, 13, 20: utroque vorsum rectum est ingenium meum, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 8.!*? Versus is said by many lexicons to be also a prep., but no ancient authority can be safely cited for this use. The true readings are: in Italiam versus, Cic. Fam. 4, 12, 1: adversus aedem, Liv. 8, 20, 8: in forum versus, Plin. 10, 43, 60, 121; and perh. in oppidum, Auct. B. Hisp. 21.