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vĭdŭus, a, um, adj. [Sanscr. vidhava, without a husband; cf. ve- in vecors, etc.; ἠί̈θεος, single], deprived or bereft of a husband or wife, bereft of a lover, spouseless, mateless, widowed.

I. Lit.: quae (Penelopa) tam diu vidua viro suo caruit, Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 2: vidui viri, id. Merc. 4, 6, 13; Ov. A. A. 1, 102; id. H. 8, 86: quidve tibi prodest viduas dormire puellas? Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 17.—

B. Subst.: vĭdŭa, ae, f., a widow: nupta, vidua, virgo, Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 37: cognitor viduarum, Cic. Caecin. 5, 14: orbarum et viduarum tributa, id. Rep. 2, 20: viduas avaras venari, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 78.—Of unmarried women: se rectius viduam et illum caelibem futurum fuisse contendere quam cum impari jungi, Liv. 1, 46, 7; Sen. Herc. Fur. 245; id. Med. 215; cf. Dig. 50, 16, 242, 3.—

II. Transf.

A. Of animals: columba, Plin. 10, 34, 52, 104. —

B. Of things: torus, Prop. 2, 9, 16: cubile, Ov. Am. 2, 10, 17: noctes, id. H. 19, 69: domus, id. F. 1, 36: manus (Penelopes), id. H. 1, 10: caelibatus, Sen. Ben. 1, 9, 4.— So of a vine which is not trained to any tree, which stands alone: ut vidua in nudo vitis quae nascitur arvo, Cat. 62, 49; and conversely, of trees which are without vines: et vitem viduas ducit ad arbores, Hor. C. 4, 5, 30: ulmos, Juv. 8, 78: platanus, Mart. 3, 58, 3: ramus, Col. 5, 6, 31.—

C. In gen., deprived or bereft of, destitute of, without any thing (only poet. and in post-Aug. prose); constr. with a or ab, the simple abl., or gen.: cogor adire lacus viduos a lumine Phoebi, Verg. Cul. 371: me ipse viduus (i. e. viribus meis), Cic. poët. Tusc. 2, 10, 25: viduus pharetrā Apollo, Hor. C. 1, 10, 11: alni (i. e. naves) moderantibus, Stat. Th. 10, 13: clavus (gubernatore), id. ib. 10, 183: solum arboribus, Col. 2, 2, 25; 3, 11, 5: pabulationes pecudibus, id. 9, 4, 1: viduus mente, App. M. 2, p. 120, 38: nec viduum pectus amoris habet, Ov. Am. 3, 10, 18: viduus teli, Sil. 2, 247.—Absol.: arae, desolate, without fire, App. M. 4, p. 155, 41.