Previous: ̓ωπιςNext: ὤρα


ὥρα (C), Ion. ὥρη, ἡ: Ep. gen. pl. ὡράων, Ion. ὡρέων: loc. pl. ὥρασι, q. v.

A. any period, fixed by natural laws and revolutions, whether of the year, month, or day (the sense 'day' is implied in the compd. ἑπτάωρος, q. v.), νυκτός τε ὥραν καὶ μηνὸς καὶ ἐνιαυτοῦ X.Mem. 4.7.4, cf. E.Alc.449(lyr.), Pl.R.527d; τοῦ γνώμονος ἡ σκιὰ ἐπιοῦσα ἐπὶ τὰς γραμμὰς σημαίνει τὰς ὥρας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας IG12(8).240 (Samothrace): but specially,

I. in Hom., part of the year, season; mostly in pl., the seasons, ὅτε τέτρατον ἦλθεν ἔτος καὶ ἐπήλυθον ὧραι Od.2.107, 19.152; ἀλλ' ὅτε δὴ μῆνές τε καὶ ἡμέραι ἐξετελεῦντο, ἂψ περιτελλομένου ἔτεος, καὶ ἐπήλυθον ὧραι 11.295, 14.294; ἀλλ' ὅτε δή ῥ' ἐνιαυτὸς ἔην, περὶ δ' ἔτραπον ὧραι 10.469, cf. Hes. Th. 58; Διὸς ὧραι Od.24.344, cf. Pi.O.4.2; ὁ κύκλος τῶν ὡρέων ἐς τὠυτὸ περιιών Hdt.2.4, cf. 1.32; δυώδεκα μέρεα δασαμένους τῶν ὡρέων ἐς [τὸν ἐνιαυτόν] Id.2.4; οὐ μεταλλάσσουσι αἱ ὧραι ib.77; περιτελλομέναις ὥραις S.OT156 (lyr.); πάσαις ὥραις at all seasons, Id.Fr.592.6 (lyr.), Ar.Av.696 (anap.); ὧραι ἐτῶν καὶ ἐνιαυτῶν Pl.Lg.906c, cf. Smp.188a, etc.; τῆς ..ὥρας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ταύτης οὔσης, ἐν ᾗ ἀσθενοῦσιν ἄνθρωποι μάλιστα Th.7.47; χαλεπὴ ὥ. a bad season, Pl.Prt.344d; ἀ δ' ὤρα χαλέπα Alc.39; ἡ ὥ. αὕτη this season, X.Cyn.7.1, cf. 5.6; κατὰ τὰς ὥρας according to the seasons, Arist.GA786a31; οἱ περὶ τὴν ὥραν χρόνοι Id.Pol.1335a37.—
Hom. and Hes. distinguish three seasons, and express each by the sg. ὥρη, with a word added to specify each:

a. spring, ἔαρος ..ὥρη Il.6.148; ὥρη εἰαρινή 2.471, 16.643, Od.18.367, etc.; so in Trag. and Att., ἦρος ὥρα or ὧραι, Ar.Nu.1008 (anap.), E.Cyc.508 (lyr.); ὥρα νέα Ar.Eq.419; νεᾶνις E.Ph.786 (lyr.); v. infr. 2.

b. summer, θέρεος ὥρη Hes.Op.584, 664; ὥρα θερινή X.Cyn.9.20, Pl.Epin.987a, etc.

c. winter, χείματος ὥρη Hes.Op.450; ὥρῃ χειμερίῃ Od.5.485, Hes.Op.494; χειμῶνος ὥρᾳ in winter, And.1.137; χιονοβόλος Plu.2.182e.—
A. also names three seasons, Pr.454sq.; an Egyptian division of the year, acc. to D.S.1.26.—
A fourth first appears in Alcm.76, θέρος καὶ χεῖμα κὠπώραν τρίταν καὶ τέτρατον τὸ fῆρ; and in Hp.Vict.3.68, χειμών, ἦρ, θέρος, φθινόπωρον; ὥρας φαίνομεν ἡμεῖς ἦρος χειμῶνος ὀπώρας Ar.Av.709 (anap.); τετράμορφοι ὧραι E(?).Fr.943 (hex.): later, seven seasons are named, ἔαρ, θέρος, ὀπώρα, φθινόπωρον, σπορητός, χειμών, φυταλιά Gal.17(1).17.

2. esp. prime of the year, springtime, ὅσα φύλλα καὶ ἄνθεα γίγνεται ὥρῃ Od.9.51, cf. Il.2.468; παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥραν Th.4.6.

b. in historians, the campaigning season, τὸν τῆς ὥρας εἰς τὸν περίπλουν χρόνον X.HG6.2.13; esp. in the phrase ὥρα ἔτους, Th.2.52, 6.70, Pl.Phdr.229a, Lg.952e, D.50.23, Thphr.CP3.23.2; εἰς ἔτους ὥραν next season, Plu.Per.10.

3. the year generally, τῆς ὥρης μέσον θέρος Hdt.8.12; ἐν τῇ πέρυσιν ὥρᾳ last year, D.56.3; εἰς ὥρας next year, Philem.116, Pl.Ep.346c, LXX Ge.18.10, AP11.17 (Nicarch.), cf. Plu.Ages.22; also εἰς ἄλλας ὥρας hereafter, E.IA122 (lyr.); ἐς τὰς ὥρας τὰς ἑτέρας Ar.Nu.562 (lyr.); ἐκ τῶν ὡρῶν εἰς τὰς ὥρας Id.Th.950 (anap.); κἠς ὥρας κἤπειτα next year and for ever, Theoc.15.74; also ὥραις ἐξ ὡρᾶν Isyll.25; cf. ὥρασιν.

4. in pl., of the climate of a country, as determined by its seasons, Hdt.1.142, cf. 149, 4.199 (here perh. three harvest seasons); τὰς ὥ. κάλλιστα κεκρημένας Id.3.106; cf. Pl.Criti.111e, Phd. 111b; climatic conditions, Hdt.2.26.

II. time of day, νυκτὸς ἐν ὥρῃ h.Merc.67, 155, 400; αἱ ὧ. τῆς ἡμέρας the times of day, i.e. morning, noon, evening, and night, X.Mem.4.3.4; δι' ὥραν ἡμέρας by the time of day (fixed for meetings), D.Prooem.49, etc.; πᾶσαν ὥ. τῆς ἡμέρας Arist.Mete.371b31; μεσονυκτίοις ποθ' ὥραις Anacreont.31.1: without ἡμέρας or νυκτός, ἑκάστης ἡμέρας μέχρι τρίτου μέρους ὥρας Pl. Lg.784a; τῆς ὥρας μικρὸν πρὸ δύντος ἡλίου X.HG7.2.22; ψευσθεὶς τῆς ὥ. having mistaken the hour, And.1.38; ἐποίησαν ἔξω μέσων νυκτῶν τὴν ὥραν, i.e. they prolonged the day beyond midnight, D.54.26; τῆς ὥρας ἐγίγνετ' ὀψέ Id.21.84; ὀψίτερον τῆς ὥ. PTeb.793 xi 12 (ii B. C.); πολλῆς ὥρας it being late, Plb.5.8.3; ἤδη ὥρα πολλή Ev.Marc.6.35; ἄχρι πολλῆς ὥρας till late in the day, D.H.2.54.

b. duration, interval or lapse of time, μετὰ ἱκανὴν ὥραν τοῦ κατενεχθῆναι τὸν πέλεκυν ἐξακούεται ἡ τῆς πληγῆς φωνή S.E.M.5.69; length of time, term, Ἄρτεμις ἐννέ' ἐτῶν δεκάδας βίον Ἀρτεμιδώρῳ ἔκχρησεν, τρεῖς δ' ὥραι(date.) ἔτι προσέθηκε Προνοίη IG12(3).1350.3 (Thera, ii B. C.); ἐπὶ πολλὴν ὥ. for a long time, J.AJ8.4.4.

2. the νυχθήμερον was prob. first divided into twenty-four hours by Hipparch., ἐν πόσαις ὥραις ἰσημεριναῖς (equinoctial hours) ἕκαστον τῶν ἄστρων ἢ δύνει ἢ ἀνατέλλει 2.4.5, cf. Ptol.Alm.3.9, 4.9, al.

b. in ordinary life the day from sunrise to sunset was divided into twelve equal parts called ὧραι (ὧραι καιρικαί when it was necessary to distinguish them from the ὧραι ἰσημεριναί, v. καιρικός 2 c), ἡμέρα ἡ ..δωδεκάωρος, τουτέστιν ἡ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς μέχρι δύσεως S.E.M.10.182; οὐχὶ δώδεκά εἰσιν ὧραι τῆς ἡμέρας; Ev.Jo.11.9; ὡράων ἀμφὶ δυωδεκάδι AP9.782 (Paul.Sil.); the time of day was commonly given without the Art., ὥρᾳ ᾱ PHamb.1.96.3 (ii A. D.), τρίτης ὥρας Plu.Rom.12; ὀγδόης, ἐνάτης, δεκάτης ὥ., Id.Alex.60, Aem.22, Ant.68, etc.; but we have περὶ τὴν τρίτην ὥραν, περὶ τὴν ἑνδεκάτην, Ev.Matt.20.3,6, beside περὶ ἕκτην καὶ ἐννάτην ὥ. ib.5; χθὲς ὥραν ἑβδόμην Ev.Jo.4.52, cf. IG5(1).1390.109 (Andania, i B. C.), etc.; ἐρωτᾷ σε Χαιρήμων δειπνῆσαι ..αὔριον, ἥτις ἐστὶν ιε, ἀπὸ ὥρας θ̄ -to-morrow the 15th at 9 o'clock, POxy.110 (ii A. D.): prov., δωδεκάτης ὥ., as we say 'at the eleventh hour', Plu.Crass.17.

c. τὰ δυώδεκα μέρεα τῆς ἡμέρης παρὰ Βαβυλωνίων ἔμαθον οἱ Ἕλληνες Hdt. 2.109; here ἡμέρη means the νυχθήμερον, and the μέρεα were each = 2 ὧραι ἰσημεριναί; these double hours (Assyr. ka-bu) are called ὧραι by Eudox., ἥμισυ ζῳδίου .., ὅ ἐστιν ὥρας ἥμισυ Ars14.11, cf. 16.2; cf. δωδεκάωρος 11.

III. Astrol., degree of the zodiac rising at the nativity (cf. ὡρονόμος 11, ὡροσκόπος 11), ὥ. μεροποσπόρος, τεκνοσπόρος, Man.4.577, 597; ἐξ ὥρης ἐσορῶν Ζεὺς Ἑρμείην Jupiter in the ascendant in aspect with Mercury, Id.3.186, cf. 32, al.

B. the fitting time or season for a thing (mostly without Art., even in Att.), freq. in Hom. (v. infr.); ὥρα συνάπτει Pi.P.4.247; ὧραι ἐπειγόμεναι Id.N.4.34; ὅταν ὥ. ἥκῃ X.Mem.2.1.2; but with Art., τῆς ὥ. ἐνθυμεῖσθαι Id.Cyn.8.6: freq. in later writers, τῆς ὥρας ἐπιγενομένης Plb.2.34.3, etc.

2. c. gen. rei, ὥρη κοίτοιο, μύθων, ὕπνου, the time for bed, tale-telling, or sleep, Od.3.334, 11.379, cf. Hdt.1.10; ὥρη δόρποιο Od.14.407; περὶ ἀρίστου ὥραν Th.7.81, X.HG1.1.13; πολυηράτου ἐς γάμου ὥρην Od.15.126; ἐς γάμου ὥρην ἀπικέσθαι Hdt. 6.61; γάμων ἔχειν ὥραν D.H.5.32; so εἰς ἀνδρὸς ὥραν ἥκουσα time for a husband, Pl.Criti. 113d; ὥρη ἀρότου, ἀμήτου, Hes.Op.460, 575; μέχρι ἀρότου ὥρης IG7.235.3 (Oropus, iv B. C.); καρπῶν ὧραι Ar.Ra. 1034 (anap.); ἡ ὥρα τῆς ὀχείας Arist.HA509b20; τοῦ φωλεύειν ib. 579a26, etc.; also ὥραν εἶχον παιδεύεσθαι I was of age to ..Is.9.28.

3. ὥρα [ἐστίν] c. inf., it is time to do a thing, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὥρη εὕδειν Od.11.330, cf. 373; so also in Trag. and Att., E.Ph. 1584, Heracl.288 (anap.), Ar.Ec.30, Pl.Prt.361e, 362a; so δοκεῖ οὐχ ὥρα εἶναι καθεύδειν X.An.1.3.11, cf. HG7.2.13 (dub. l.): c. acc. et inf., ὥρα δ' ἐμπόρους καθιέναι ἄγκυραν A.Ch.661, cf. S.OT466 (lyr.): c. dat. et inf., X.Cyr.4.5.1, Pl.Tht.145b: in these phrases the inf. pres. is almost universal; the aor., however, occurs in Od.21.428, S.Aj.245 (lyr.), Ar.Ach.393 (where also ἐστί is added to ὥρα, as in Philyll.3, ἀφαιρεῖν ὥρα 'στὶν ἤδη τὰς τραπέζας); and the pf. in ὥρα πεπαῦσθαι Plu.2.728d: sts. the inf. must be supplied, οὐδέ τί σε χρή, πρὶν ὥρη, καταλέχθαι Od.15.394, cf. E.El.112 (lyr.), Ar.Ec.877; ὥρα κἠς οἶκον (i. e. ἰέναι εἰς οἶκον) Theoc.15.147.

4. in various adverb. usages, τὴν ὥρην at the right time, Hdt.2.2, 8.19, X.Oec.20.16: but τὴν ὥ. at that hour, Hes.Sc.401; ταύτην τὴν ὥραν at this season, X.Cyn.9.1; [ἡ ἶρις] πᾶσαν ὥραν γίγνεται τῆς ἡμέρας Arist.Mete.371b31; δείελον ὥρην παύομαι ἀμήτοιο A.R. 3.417; ὥραν οὐδενὸς κοινὴν θεῶν at an hour .., A.Eu.109, cf. E.Ba. 724, Aeschin.1.9; αὐτῆς ὥρας immediately, PMich. in Class.Phil.22.255(iii A. D.); ἐν ὥρῃ in due season, in good time, Od.17.176, Hdt. 1.31, cf. Pi.O.6.28, Ar.V.242, etc.; also αἰεὶ εἰς ὥρας in successive seasons, Od.9.135; ἐς τὰς ὥρας for all time, Ar.Ra.382 (lyr. cf. supr. A. 1.3) (hence in an acclamation [ε] ἰς ὥρας πᾶσι τοῖς τὴν πόλιν φιλοῦσιν hurrah for .., POxy.41.29 (iii/iv A. D.)); οἱ ὧδε χέζοντες εἰς ὥ. μὴ ἔλθοιεν Milet.2(3) No.406, cf. ὥρασι; καθ' ὥραν Theoc.18.12, Plb.1.45.4, cf. 3.93.6, etc.; opp. παρ' ὥρην AP7.534 (Alex.Aet. or Autom.), cf. Plu.2.784b, etc.:—
πρὸ τῆς ὥρας X.Oec.20.16; πρὸ ὥρας Luc.Luct.13; πρὸ ὥρας τελευτῆσαι IG42(1).84.26 (Epid., i A. D.); πρὶν ὥρας Pi.P.4.43 (cf. πρίν A. 11.4).

II. metaph., the spring-time of life, the bloom of youth, Mimn.3.1; ὥραν ἐχούσας A.Supp.997, cf. Th.13, 535; παῖδας πρὸς τέρμασιν ὥρας Ar.Av.705 (anap.); πάντες οἱ ἐν ὥρᾳ Pl.R.474d; οὐκ ἐνὥ., = πρεσβύτερος, Id.Phdr. 240d; ἐὰν ἐπὶ ὥρᾳ ᾖ Id.R.474e; ἕως ἂν ἐν ὥρᾳ ὦσι Id.Men.76b; παυσαμένου τῆς ὥ. prob. in Id.Phdr.234a; ἀνθεῖν ἐν ὥ. Id.R.475a; τὴν ὥ. διαφυλάξαι ἄβατον τοῖς πονηροῖς Isoc.10.58; λήγειν ὥρας, opp. ἀνθεῖν, Pl.Alc.1.131e; ἑς ἐπιγινόμενόν τι τέλος, οἷον τοῖς ἀκμαίοις ἡ ὥρα Arist.EN1174b33, cf. 1157a8.

2. freq. involving an idea of beauty, φεῦ φεῦ τῆς ὥρας τοῦ κάλλους Ar.Av.1724(lyr.); ὥρᾳ ..ἡλικίας λαμπρός Th.6.54; κάλλει καὶ ὥρᾳ διενεγκόντες Aeschin.1.134, cf. ib.158; καλὸς ὥρᾳ τε κεκραμένος Pi.O.10(11).104, cf. X.Mem. 2.1.22, Pl.Lg.837b; ἀφ' ὥρας ἐργάζεσθαι quaestum corpore facere, Plu.Tim..14, cf. X.Mem..1.6.13, Smp.8.21; τὴν ὥ. πεπωληκότες Phld.Rh.1.344 S.:—
then,

b. generally, beauty, grace, elegance of style, D.H.Pomp.2, Plu.2.874b, etc.; γλυκύτης καὶ ὥ. Hermog.Id.2.3, cf. Men.Rh.p.335 S., Him.Or.1.2; of beauty in general, χάρις καὶ ὥρα Plu.2.128d.

3. Ὥρα personified, like Ἥβη, Pi.N.8.1.

III. = τὰ ὡραῖα, the produce of the season, fruits of the year, ἀπὸ τῆς ὥρας ἐτρέφοντο X.HG2.1.1.

C. personified, αἱὯραι, the Hours, keepers of heaven's cloudgate, Il.5.749, 8.393; and ministers of the gods, ib.433; Ζεῦ, τεαὶ ..Ὧραι Pi.O.4.2; esp. of Aphrodite, h.Hom.6.5,12; also Ὧ. Διονυσιάδες, Καρνειάδες, Simon.148, Call.Ap.87; three in number, Eunomia, Dike, Eirene, daughters of Zeus and Themis, Hes.Th. 901; Ωραι πολυάνθεμοι Pi.O.13.17, cf. Alex.261.6, Theoc.1.150, etc.: freq. joined with the Χάριτες, h.Ap.194, Hes.Op.75; worshipped at Athens, Paus.9.35.1; at Argos, Id.2.20.5; at Attaleia, BMus.Inscr.1044 (i B. C.).