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ὡς:—
Summary:

A. as ADVERB of Manner.

Aa. ὧς and ὥς (with accent), so, thus.

Ab. ὡς (without accent) of the Relat. Pron. ὅς, as.

Ac. ὡς Relat. and Interrog., how.

Ad. ὡς temporal, when.

Ae. ὡς Local, where,

B. ὡς, as CONJUNCTION.

C, D. various usages.

A. ADVERB of Manner:

Aa. ὥς, Demonstr., = οὕτως, so, thus, freq. in Hom., Il.1.33, al.; ὢς εἶπ' Sapph.Supp.20a.11 (Epic style); in Ion. Prose, Hdt.3.13, al.; rare in Att., and almost confined to certain phrases, v. infr. 2, 3; ὥς simply = οὕτως, A.Ag.930, Th.3.37, Pl.Prt.338a; ἀλλ' ὣς γενέσθω E.Hec.888, al.

2. καὶ ὧς even so, nevertheless, Il.1.116, al.; οὐδ' ὧς not even so, 7.263, Od.1.6, al., Hdt.6.76; οὐδέ κεν ὧς Il.9.386: the phrases καὶ ὧς, οὐδ' ὧς, μηδ' ὧς, are used in Trag. and Att., S.Ant.1042, Th.1.74, 7.74; also later, PCair.Zen.19.10 (iii B. C., unaccented), UPZ146.40 (ii B. C.), GDI 1832.11 (Delph., ii B. C.), IG22.850.17 (iii B. C.); κἂν ὧς, εἴπερ μέλει σοι, ἀπόστειλόν μοί τινα POxy.120.11 (iv A. D.); δουλεύων καθὼς καὶ ὧς GDI2160 (Delph., ii B. C.); Thess. καὶ οὗς IG9(2).234.1 (iii B. C.); for this phrase the accentuation ὧς is prescribed by Hdn.Gr.2.932, al., cf. A.D.Synt.307.16, and is found in good Mss. of Homer; for the remaining uses under this head (Aa. 1, 3, 4) the accentuation ὥς is prescribed by the same grammarians.

3. in Comparisons, ὥς .., ὡς .., so ..as .., etc.; and reversely ὡς .., ὣς .., as ..so, Il.1.512, 14.265, etc.; in Att., Pl.R.530d; also ὥς τε ..ὣς .., as ..thus .., h.Cer.174-6, E.Ba.1066-8; οἷα ..ὥς Id.El.151-5; ὥσπερ .., ὣς δὲ ..(in apodosi) Pl.Prt.326d.

4. thus, for instance, Od.5.129, h.Ven. 218; ὥς shd. be accented in Od.5.121, 125.

Ab. ὡς, Relat., as, Hom., etc.; prop. relat. to a demonstr. Adv., which is freq. omitted, κινήθη δ' ἀγορὴ ὡς κύματα μακρὰ θαλάσσης, i. e. οὕτως, ὡς .., Il.2.144 (φὴ Zenod.): it is relat. not only to the regular demonstr. Advs. ὥς ὧς, τώς, ὧδε, οὕτως, αὕτως, but also to ταύτῃ, Pl.R.365d, etc. We find a collat. Dor. form ὥ (q. v.); cf. ὥτε. Usage:

I. in similes, freq. in Hom., Il.5.161, al.; longer similes are commonly introduced by ὡς ὅτε, ὡς δ' ὅτε, ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε πύργος [ἤριπε] 4.462: ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπε 13.389, cf. 2.394; so later, Emp.84.1, etc.; ὡς ὅτε θαητὸν μέγαρον, πάξομεν Pi.O.6.2: ὡς ὅτε is rare in short similes, Od.11.368: ὡς is folld. by indic. pres., Il.9.4, 16.364: also by aor., 3.33 sq., 4.275, 16.823, al.; also by subj. pres. or aor., 5.161, 10.183,485, 13.334 (sts. ὡς δ' ὅτ' ἄν, 11.269, 17.520); cf. ὥστε A:—
the Verb is sts. omitted with ὡς, but may be supplied from the context, ἐνδούπησε πεσοῦσ', ὡς εἰναλίη κήξ (sc. πίπτει) Od.15.479, cf. 6.20; θεὸς δ' ὣς τίετο δήμῳ Il.5.78; οἱ δὲ φέβοντο .., βόες ὣς ἀγελαῖαι Od.22.299: where ὡς follows the noun to which it refers, it takes the accent; so in Com., Ἀριστόδημος ὥς Cratin.151, cf. Eub.75.6; v. infr. H.

2. like as, just as, ὡς οὗτος κατὰ τέκν' ἔφαγε .., ὣς ἡμεῖς κτλ. Il.2.326, v. supr. Aa. 3.

3. sts. in the sense as much as or according as, ἑλὼν κρέας ὥς (i. e. ὅσον) οἱ χεῖρες ἐχάνδανον Od.17.344; ὦκα δὲ μητρὶ ἔννεπον ὡς (i. e. ὅσα) εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔκλυον h.Cer.172; τῶν πάντων οὐ τόσσον ὀδύρομαι ..ὡς ἑνός Od.4.105; τόσον ..ὡς Il.4.130; so in Trag., σοὶ θεοὶ πόροιεν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω S.OC1124; ὡς ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῶν ὅστις ἐξ ἴσου νοσεῖ Id.OT60; in Prose, ὡς δύναται as much as he can, Democr.278; τὸ ῥῆμα μέμνημαι ὡς εἶπε Aeschin.3.72; ὡς μή = ὅσον μή, νέμεν ὅτι ἃν ( = ἂν) βόλητοι ὡς μὴ ἰν τοῖ περιχώροι IG5(2).3.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); cf. Ab. 11.2 infr.

4. sts. after Comp., compared with, hence than, μᾶλλον πρέπει οὕτως ὡς ..Pl.Ap.36d; ἅ γε μείζω πόνον παρέχει ..οὐκ ἂν ῥᾳδίως οὐδὲ πολλὰ ἂν εὕροις ὡς τοῦτο Id.R.526c; οὐδενὸς μᾶλλον φροντίζειν ὡς ..Plb.3.12.5, cf. 7.4.5, 11.2.9, Plu.Cor.36: μᾶσσον ὡς is dub. in A.Pr.629, and <ἢ> shd. perh. be inserted in Lys.7.12,31; cf. ὥσπερ IV.

II. with Adverbial clauses:

1. parenthetically, in qualifying clauses, ὡς ἔοικε, etc., Pl. Smp.176c, etc.: in these cases γε or γοῦν is freq. added, ὡς γοῦν ὁ λόγος σημαίνει as at any rate the argument shows, Id.R.334a; in some phrases c. inf., v. infr. B. 11.3. An anacoluthon sts. occurs by the Verb of the principal clause being made dependent on the parenthetic Verb, ὡς δὲ Σκύθαι λέγουσι, νεώτατον ἁπάντων ἐθνέων εἶναι (for ἦν) τὸ σφέτερον Hdt.4.5, cf. 1.65; ὡς ἐγὼ ἤκουσα, εἶναι αὐτόν Id.4.76; ὡς γὰρ ..ἤκουσά τινος, ὅτι ..X.An.6.4.18 codd.; ἁνὴρ ὅδ' ὡς ἔοικεν οὐ νεμεῖν (for οὐ νεμεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε), S.Tr.1238.

2. in elliptical phrases, so far as ..(cf. supr. Ab.1.3) ὡς ἐμοί Id.Aj. 395 (lyr.); so ὥς γε ἐμοὶ κριτῇ Ael.VH2.41 and ὥς γ' ἐμοὶ χρῆσθαι κριτῇ E.Alc.801; ὡς ἐμῇ δόξῃ X.Vect.5.2; ὡς ἀπ' ὀμμάτων (sc. εἰκάσαι) to judge by eyesight, S.OC15: esp. in such phrases as οὐκέτι πολλὸν χωρίον, ὡς εἶναι Αἰγύπτου Hdt.2.8; οὐδὲ ἀδύνατος, ὡς Αακεδαιμόνιος for a Lacedaemonian, Th.4.84, cf. D.H.10.31; ὡς ἀνθρώποις Alcmaeon 1; φρονεῖ ..ὡς γυνὴ μέγα for a woman, S.OT1078; πιστός, ὡς νομεύς, ἀνήρ ib.1118; μακρὰν ὡς γέροντι ..ὁδόν Id.OC20, cf. 385, Ant.62, etc.; ὡπλισμένοι ὡς ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἱκανῶς X.An.4.3.31; also with ἄν, μεγάλα ἐκτήσατο χρήματα, ὡς ἂν εἶναι Ῥοδῶπιν Hdt.2.135 codd. (ἂν secl. Krüger, Ῥοδώπιος cj. Valck.):—
for ὡς εἰπεῖν and the like , v. infr. B. 11.3.

3. ὡς attached to the object of the Verb, as, ἑωυτὸν ὡς ἐχθρὸν λυπέει Democr.88; ἔλαβεν ἀμφοτέρους ὡς φίλους ἤδη X.Cyr.3.2.25; ἐν οἰκήματι ᾧ ὡς ταμιείῳ ἐχρῆτο Pl.Prt.315d.—
For the similar usage of ὡς with Participles and Prepositions, v. infr. c.

III. with Adverbs:

a. with the Posit., ὡς ἀληθῶς truly, Pl.Phdr.234e (cf. ἀληθής 111.1b: as if Adv. of τὸ ἀληθές); ὡς ἑτέρως in the other way, ib.276c, D.18.212 (Adv. of ὁ ἕτερος; v. ἕτερος v. 2) (v. infr. D.1.1); ὡς ἠπίως, ὡς ἐτητύμως, S.El.1438 (lyr.), 1452; ὡς ὁμοίως SIG708.34 (Istropolis, ii B. C.), LXX 4 Ma.5.21, 1 Enoch5.3, IG7.2725.16 (Acraeph., ii A. D.); ὡς ἐναλλάξ Vett.Val. 215.9, 340.2; ὡς παντελῶς Id.184.26; ὡς ἄλλως Is.7.27, D.6.32; ὡς ἐνδεχομένως PPetr.2p.53 (iii B. C.); in ὣς αὔτως (v. ὡσαύτως) we have the Adv. of ὁ αὐτός, but the ὥς retains its demonstr. force, as does ὁ in Homer; ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὡς ὁμοίως, and ὡς παντελῶς may be modelled on ὣς αὔτως, with which they are nearly synonymous; so also ὡς ἑτέρως and ὡς ἐναλλάξ, which are contrasted with it.

b. with Advbs. expressing anything extraordinary, θαυμαστῶς or θαυμασίως ὡς, ὑπερφυῶς ὡς, v. sub vocc.; ὡς is sts. separated by several words from its Adv., as θαυμαστῶς μοι εἶπες ὡς παρα' δόξαν Pl.Phd.95a; ὑπερφυῶς δὴ τὸ χρῆμα ὡς δύσγνωστον φαίνεται Id.Alc.2.147c, cf. Phd. 99d.

c. with the Sup., as much as can be, ὡς μάλιστα Th.1.141, etc.: ὡς ῥᾷστα as easily as possible, A.Pr.104; ὡς πλεῖστα Democr. 189; ὠς τάχιστα as quickly as possible, Alc.Supp.4.15, etc.; more fully expressed, ὡς δυνατὸν ἄριστα Isoc.12.153; ὡς ἐδύναντο ἀδηλότατα Th.7.50; μαχομένους ὡς ἂν δυνώμεθα κράτιστα X.An.3.2.6; ὡς οἷόν τε βελτιστον Pl.R.403d; ὡς ἀνυστὸν κάλλιστα Diog.Apollon.3: ὡς and ὅτι are sts. found together, where one is superfluous, ὡς ὅτι μάλιστα Pl.Lg.908a; βοῦν ὡς ὅτι κάλλιστον IG22.1028.17 (ii/i B. C.); v. infr. G.

d. with Comp., ὡς θᾶσσον Plb.1.66.1, 3.82.1.

e. in the phrases ὡς τὸ πολύ, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ, Pl.R.330c, 377b; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖον for the more part, commonly, ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον Th.2.34; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος, ὡς πλήθει, Pl.R.364a, 389d; ὡς τὸ ἐπίπαν Hdt.7.50, etc.; ὡς τὰ πολλά Ael.NA12.17.

2. with Adjs.,

a. Posit., ὑπερφυεῖ τινι ..ὡς μεγάλῃ βλάβῃ Pl.Grg.477d.

b. with Sup., ὡς ἄριστοι τὰς φύσεις Id.Ti.18d; ὅπως ὡς βέλτισται ἔσονται Id.Grg.503a; ὡς ὅτι βέλτιστον Id.Smp.218d.

c. separated from the Adj. by a Prep., ὡς ἐς ἐλάχιστον Th.1.63, cf. D.18.246; ὡς ἐν βραχυτάτοις Antipho 1.18; ὡς ἐν ἐχυρωτάτῳ ποιεῖσθαι X.Cyr. 1.6.26, etc.

Ac. Relat. and Interrog., how, μερμήριζε ..ὡς Ἀχιλῆα τιμήσειε Il. 2.3, cf. Pl.R.365a; ἐβουλεύοντο ὡς ..στήσονται Hdt.3.84, etc.; οἷα δεῖ λέγειν καὶ ὥς Arist.EN1128a1; ὡς πέπραται how, i. e. at what price the goods have been sold, PCair.Zen.149 (iii B. C.); so οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς ..(for the more usu. ὅπως) nowise can it be that .., S.Ant.750; οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς οὐ .., Id.Ph.196 (anap., Porson for οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ου); οἶσθ' ὡς πόησον; by a mixture of constructions for ὡς χρὴ ποιῆσαι or ὡς ποιήσεις, Id.OT543, cf. Hermipp.43, Men.916; οἶσθ' ὡς μετεύξει is f.l. in E.Med.600 (μέτευξαι Elmsley); similarly, οἶσθα ..ὡς νῦν μὴ σφαλῇς S.OC75.

2. ὡς ἂν ποήσῃς however (in whatever way) thou mayest act, Id.Aj.1369, cf. Pl.Smp.181a; αὐτῷ ὥς κεν ἅδῃ, τὼς ἔσσεται A.R.3.350.

Ad. Temporal, when, with past tenses of the indic., ἐνῶρτο γέλως .., ὡς ἴδον Il.1.600: with opt., to express a repeated action, whenever, ὡς ..ἐς τὴν Μιλησίην ἀπίκοιτο Hdt.1.17: rarely c. subj., to denote what happens under certain conditions, τῶν δὲ ὡς ἕκαστός οἱ μειχθῇ, διδοῖ δῶρον Id.4.172, cf. 1.132; later, ὡς ἄν c. subj., when, PCair.Zen.251 (iii B. C.), 1 Ep.Cor.11.34, etc.; ὥς κα Berl.Sitzb.1927.170 (Cyrene); ὡς ἂν τάχιστα λάβῃς τὴν ἐπιστολήν as soon as .. PCair.Zen.241.1 (iii B. C.), cf. LXX 1 Ki.9.13, Jo.3.8: in orat. obliq. c. inf., Hdt.1.86, 96, al.: expressed more forcibly by ὡς ..τάχιστα, some word or words being interposed, ὡς γὰρ ἐπετρόπευσε τάχιστα as soon as ever .., Id.1.65; ὡς δὲ ἀφίκετο τάχιστα X.Cyr.1.3.2: less freq. ὡς τάχιστα stand together, Aeschin.2.22: but this usage must be distd. from signf. Ab.111.1c: folld. by demonstr., ὡς εἶδ', ὣς ἀνεπᾶλτο Il.20.424; ὡς ἴδεν, ὥς μιν ἔρως πυκινὰς φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν 14.294; also ὡς .., ἔπειτα 3.396; Κρονίδης ὥς μιν φράσαθ' ὣς ἐόλητο θυμὸν ἀνωΐστοισιν ὑποδμηθεὶς βελέεσσι Κύπριδος Mosch.2.74; the second ὣς is repeated, ἁ δ' Ἀταλάντα ὡς ἴδεν, ὣς ἐμάνη, ὣς ἐς βαθὺν ἅλατ' ἔρωτα Theoc.3.41 (ὣς = εὐθέως, Sch.vet.), cf. 2.82; in Bion 1.40 the clauses with ὡς all belong to the protasis.

2. ὡς appears to be f.l. for ἕως in ὡς ἂν αὑτὸς ἥλιος ..αἴρῃ S.Ph.1330, ὡς ἂν ᾖς οἷόσπερ εἶ Id.Aj.1117; cf. ὥσπερ 111.1: but in later Gr. = ἕως, while, ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε Ev.Jo.12.35, 36; ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομεν Ep.Gal.6.10, cf. Epigr.Gr.646a5 (p.529); also until, τίθεται ἐπὶ ἀνθράκων ὡς ἀναξηρανθῇ PLeid.X.89 B.; ἔα ἀφρίζειν τὴν πίσσαν ὡς οὗ ἐκλείπῃ ib.37B.; cf. EM824.43 (conversely ἕως for ὡς final, v. ἕως (B) A. 1.4).

Ae. Local, where, in dialects, Theoc.1.13, 5.101, 103, IG9(2).205.4 (Melitea, iii B. C.), SIG685.63, al. (Cretan, ii B. C.), IG12(1).736.5 (Camirus), GDI5597.8 (Ephesus, iii B. C.).

B. ὡς as CONJUNCTION:

I. with Substantive clauses, to express a fact, = ὅτι, that.

II. with Final clauses, to express an end or purpose, = ἵνα, ὅπως, so that, in order that.

III. Consecutive, = ὥστε, so that.

IV. Causal, since, because.

I. with Substantive Clauses, with verbs of learning, saying, etc., that, expressing a fact, γνωτὸν .., ὡς ἤδη Τρώεσσιν ὀλέθρου πείρατ' ἐφῆπται Il.7.402, cf. Od.3.194, etc.: in commands, προεῖπεν ὡς μηδεὶς κινήσοιτο X.HG2.1.22: with Verbs of fear or anxiety, c. fut. indic., μηκέτ' ἐκφοβοῦ, μητρῷον ὥς σε λῆμ' ἀτιμάσει ποτέ S.El.1427, cf. X.Cyr.6.2.30; μὴ φοβοῦ ὡς ἀπορήσεις ib.5.2.12, cf. D.10.36; a sentence beginning with ὡς is sts., when interrupted, resumed by ὅτι, and vice versa, X.Cyr.5.3.30, Pl.R.470d, Hp.Ma.281c; so ὡς with a finite Verb passes into the acc. and inf., Hdt.1.70, 8.118: both constructions mixed in the same clause, ἐλογίζετο ὡς ..ἧττον ἂν αὐτοὺς ἐθέλειν ..X.Cyr.8.1.25, cf. HG3.4.27: after primary tenses (incl. historic pres.) ὡς is folld. by indic., after historic tenses by opt. (sts. by indic., both constructions in ὑπίσχοντο ..ἀμυνέειν, φράζοντες ὡς οὔ σφι περιοπτέη ἐστὶ ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπολλυμένη ..ἀλλὰ τιμωρητέον εἴη Hdt.7.168): sts. c. opt. after a primary tense, κατάπτονται ..λέγοντες ὡς Ἀρίστων ..οὐ φήσειε Id.6.69, cf. 1.70, Th.1.38, Pl.Chrm.156b.

2. with Verbs of feeling, χαίρει δέ μοι ἦτορ, ὥς μευ ἀεὶ μέμνησαι Il.23.648; ἄχος ἔλλαβ' Ἀχαιοὺς ὡς ἔπεσ' 16.600.

II. with Final Clauses, that, in order that; in this sense ὡς and ὡς ἄν, Ep. ὥς κεν, are used with the subj. after primary tenses of the indic., and with the opt. after the past tenses, βουλὴν ὑποθησόμεθ' .., ὡς μὴ πάντες ὄλωνται Il.8.37; τύμβον χεύαμεν .., ὥς κεν τηλεφανὴς ..εἴη Od. 24.83; ἡμεῖς δ' ἴωμεν ὡς, ὁπηνίκ' ἂν θεὸς πλοῦν ἡμὶν εἴκῃ, τηνικαυθ' ὁρμώμεθα S.Ph.464; [νέας] διηκοσίας περιέπεμπον ..ὡς ἂν μὴ ὀφθείησαν Hdt.8.7. b. rarely c. fut. indic., ὡς μὴ ὦν αὐτοὶ τε ἀπολέεσθε (cj. Cobet for ἀπόλεσθε) κἀμὲ τρώσετε, ἐς ἄλλον τινὰ δῆμον ἀποίχεσθε Hecat. 30J.

2. ὡς is also used with past tenses of the indic. to express a purpose which has not been or cannot be fulfilled, τί μ' οὐκ ἔκτεινας, ὡς ἔδειξα μήποτε ..; so that I never should .., S.OT1392; ἔδει τὰ ἐνέχυρα λαβεῖν, ὡς μηδ' εἰ ἐβούλετο ἐδύνατο ἐξαπατᾶν X.An. 7.6.23; cf. ἵνα B. 1.3, ὅπως B. 1.3.

3. ὡς c. inf., to limit an assertion, ὡς μὲν ἐμοὶ δοκέειν Hdt.6.95, cf. 2.124; ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ ib.53; or ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, cf. ἔπος 11.4; ὡς συντόμως, or ὡς συνελόντι εἰπεῖν to speak shortly, to be brief, X.Oec.12.19, Mem.3.8.10; ὡς εἰκάσαι to make a guess, i.e. probably, Hdt.1.34, etc.; ὡς μικρὸν μεγάλῳ εἰκάσαι Th.4.36 (so without ὡς, οὐ πολλῷ λόγῳ εἰπεῖν Hdt. 1.61), v. supr. Ab. 11.1, 2.

III. to express Consequence, like ὥστε, so that, freq. in Hdt., εὖρος ὡς δύο τριήρεας πλέειν ὁμοῦ in breadth such that two triremes could sail abreast, Hdt.7.24; ὑψηλὸν οὕτω .., ὡς τὰς κορυφὰς αὐτοῦ οὐκ οἷά τε εἶναι ἰδέσθαι 4.184; so in Trag. and Prose, A.Pers.437, al., S.OT84, X.An.3.5.7, etc.; ἀπέχοντας ἀπ' ἀλλάλων ὡς ἦμεν Fικατίπεδον ἄντομον Tab.Heracl.1.75; οὕτως ..ὡς ὁμολογεῖν Jul.Or.5.164d; ὡς καὶ τοὺς τεχνίτας λανθάνειν PHolm. 9.13; also, like ὥστε, with Indic., οὕτω κλεινὴ ἐγένετο, ὡς ..ἐξέμαθον Hdt.2.135, cf. S.Tr.590, X.HG4.1.33.

2. ἢ ὡς after a Comp., μάσσον' ἢ ὡς ἰδέμεν Pi.O.13.113; μαλακώτεροι ..ἢ ὡς κάλλιον αὐτοῖς Pl.R. 410d; cf. ὥστε B. 1.2: with words implying comparison, ὀλίγοι ἐσμὲν ὡς ἐγκρατεῖς εἶναι αὐτῶν too few to .., X.Cyr.4.5.15, γραῦς εἶ, ὦ Ἐλπινίκη, ὡς τηλικαῦτα διαπράττεσθαι πράγματα too old to ..Stesimbr. 5J.

3. ὡς is sts. omitted where the antecedent demonstrative is expressed, οὕτω ἰσχυραί, μόγις ἂν διαρρήξειας so strong, you could hardly break them, Hdt.3.12; ῥώμη σώματος τοιήδε, ἀεθλοφόροι τε ἀμφότεροι ἦσαν Id.1.31.

IV. Causal, inasmuch as, since, τί ποτε λέγεις, ὦ τέκνον; ὡς οὐ μανθάνω S.Ph.914, cf. E.Ph.843, 1077, Ar.Ra.278: c. opt., μὴ καὶ λάθῃ με προσπεσών: ὡς μᾶλλον ἂν ἕλοιτο μ' ἢ τοὺς πάντας Ἀργείους λαβεῖν S.Ph.46.

2. on the ground that .., c. fut. indic., Lys.30.27.

C. ὡς before

I. Participles;

II. Prepositions; and

III. ὡς itself as a Preposition.

I. with Participles in the case of the Subject, to mark the reason or motive of the action, as if, as, ὡς οὐκ ἀΐοντι ἐοικώς Il.23.430 (v. infr. G); ἀγανακτοῦσιν ὡς μεγάλων τινῶν ἀπεστερημένοι (i. e. ἡγούμενοι μεγάλων τινῶν ἀπεστερῆσθαι), Pl.R.329a: most freq. c. part. fut., διαβαίνει .., ὡς ἀμήσων τὸν σῖτον Hdt.6.28, cf. 91; παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς πολεμήσοντες Th.2.7, etc.; δηλοῖς ὥς τι σημανῶν νέον S.Ant. 242; ὡς τεθνήξων ἴσθι νυνί Ar.Ach.325 (troch.): in questions, παρὰ Πρωταγόραν νῦν ἐπιχειρεῖς ἰέναι, ὡς παρὰ τίνα ἀφιξόμενος; Pl.Prt.311b; ὡς τί δὴ θέλων; E.IT557; with vbs. of knowing, ἐπιστάσθω Κροῖσος ὡς ὕστερον ..ἁλοὺς τῆς πεπρωμένης Hdt.1.91; ὡς μὴ 'μπολήσων ἴσθι ..S.Ant.1063.

2. with Participles in oblique cases, λέγουσιν ἡμᾶς ὡς ὀλωλότας they speak of us as dead, A.Ag.672; ὡς μηδὲν εἰδότ' ἴσθι μ' ὧν ἀνιστορεῖς S.Ph.253; τὸν ἐκβαίνοντα κολάζουσιν ὡς παρανομοῦντα Pl.R.338e; ἵνα μὴ ἀγανακτῇ ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ ὡς δεινὰ πάσχοντος Id.Phd.115e, cf. Hdt.5.85, 9.54; νῦν δέ σου τὰ ἔργα φανερὰ γεγένηται οὐχ ὡς ἀνιωμένου ἀλλ' ὡς ἡδομένου τοῖς γιγνομένοις Lys.12.32; κτύπος φωτὸς ὡς τειρομένου <του> S.Ph.202 (lyr.); ἐν ὀλιγωρίᾳ ἐποιοῦντο, ὡς, ὅταν ἐξέλθωσιν, ἢ οὐχ ὑπομενοῦντας σφᾶς ἢ ῥᾳδίως ληψόμενοι βίᾳ made light of the matter, in the belief that .., Th.4.5.—
Both constructions in one sentence, τοὺς κόσμους εἴασε χαίρειν ὡς ἀλλοτρίους τε ὄντας καὶ πλέον θάτερον ἡγησάμενος ἀπεργάζεσθαι Pl.Phd.114e, cf. X.Cyr.1.5.9.

3. with Parts. put abs. in gen., νῦν δέ, ὡς οὕτω ἐχόντων, στρατιὴν ἐκπέμπετε Hdt.8.144; ἐρώτα ὅτι βούλει, ὡς τἀληθῆ ἐροῦντος X.Cyr.3.1.9; ὡς ὧδ' ἐχόντων τῶνδ' ἐπίστασθαί σε χρή S.Aj.281, cf. 904, A.Pr.760, E.Med.1311, Th.7.15, X.An.1.3.6: so also in acc., μισθὸν αἰτοῦσιν, ὡς οὐχὶ αὐτοῖσιν ὠφελίαν ἐσομένην ἐκ τοῦ ἄρχειν Pl.R.345e, cf. E.Ph.1461: with both cases in one sentence, ὡς καὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων προσδοκίμων ὄντων ἄλλῃ στρατιᾷ καὶ ..διαπεπολεμησόμενον Th.7.25, cf. Pl.R.604b.

II. ὡς before Preps., ἀνήγοντο ὡς ἐπὶ ναυμαχίαν (v.l. -ίᾳ) Th.1.48, cf. X. HG2.1.22; φρύγανα συλλέγοντες ὡς ἐπὶ πῦρ Id.An.4.3.11; κατέλαβε τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὡς ἐπὶ τυραννίδι, expressing the purpose, Th.1.126; ἀπέπλεον ..ὡς ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας Id.6.61; πλεῖς ὡς πρὸς οἶκον S.Ph.58; τὸ βούλευμ' ὡς ἐπ' Ἀργείοις τόδ' ἦν Id.Aj.44: in these passages ὡς marks an intention; not so in the following: ἀπαγγέλλετε τῇ μητρὶ [χαίρειν] ὡς παρ' ἐμοῦ X.Cyr.8.7.28; also ὡς ἀπὸ τῆς πομπῆς Pl.R. 327c; ὡς ἐκ κακῶν ἐχάρη Hdt.8.101.

b. later, in geographical expressions, of direction, προϊών, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸν Πηνειόν Str.9.5.8, cf. 13.1.22; ὡς πρὸς ἕω βλέπων Id.8.6.1, cf. 7.6.2; ὡς εἰς Φηραίαν (leg. Ἡραίαν) ἰόντων Id.8.3.32.

III. ὡς as a Prep., prop. in cases where the object is a person, not a place: once in Hom., ὡς αἰεὶ τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγει θεὸς ὡς τὸν ὁμοῖον Od.17.218 (v.l. ἐς τὸν ὁμοῖον, cf. αἶνος Ὁμηρικός, αἰὲν ὁμοῖον ὡς θεός ..ἐς τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγει Call.Aet.1.1.10; ἔρχεται ..ἕκαστον τὸ ὅμοιον ὡς τὸ ὅ., τὸ πυκνὸν ὡς τὸ πυκνόν κτλ. (with v.l. ἐς) Hp.Nat.Puer.17), but possibly ὡς ..ὥς as ..so, in Od. l.c.; also in Hdt., ἐσελθεῖν ὡς τὴν θυγατέρα 2.121.έ: freq. in Att., ὡς Ἆγιν ἐπρεσβεύσαντο Th.8.5, etc.; ἀφίκετο ὡς Περδίκκαν καὶ ἐς τὴν Χαλκιδικήν Id.4.79; ἀπέπλευσαν ἐς Φώκαιαν ..ὡς Ἀστύοχον Id.8.31; ναῦς ἐς τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον ὡς Φαρνάβαζον ἀποπέμπειν ib.39; ὡς ἐκεῖνον πλέομεν ὥσπερ πρὸς δεσπότην Isoc. 4.121; the examples of ὡς with names of places are corrupt, e.g. ὡς τὴν Μίλητον Th.8.36 (ἐς cod. Vat.); ὡς Ἄβυδον one Ms. in Id.8.103; ὡς τὸ πρόσθεν Ar.Ach.242: in S.OT1481 ὡς τὰς ἀδελφὰς ..τὰς ἐμὰς χέρας is equiv. to ὡς ἐμὲ τὸν ἀδελφόν; in Id.Tr.366 δόμους ὡς τούσδε house = household.

D. ὡς in independent sentences:

I. as an exclamation, how, mostly with Advbs. and Adjs., ὡς ἄνοον κραδίην ἔχες how silly a heart hadst thou! Il.21.441; ὡς ἀγαθὸν καὶ παῖδα λιπέσθαι how good is it .., Od.3.196, cf. 24.194; φρονεῖν ὡς δεινόν S.OT316; ὡς ἀστεῖος ὁ ἄνθρωπος how charming he is! Pl.Phd.116d; ὡς ἐμεγαλύνθη τὰ ἔργα σου, Κύριε LXX Ps.91(92).6, 103(104).24; in indirect clauses, ἐθαύμασα τοῦτο, ὡς ἡδέως ..ἀπεδέξατο marvelled at seeing how .., Pl. Phd.89a.

2. with Verbs, ὥς μοι δέχεται κακὸν ἐκ κακοῦ αἰεί how constantly .., Il.19.290, cf. 21.273; ὡς οὐκ ἔστι χάρις μετόπισθ' εὐεργέων how little thanks remain! Od.22.319; ὡς ὄχλος νιν ..ἀμφέπει see how .., E.Ph.148; ὡς ὑπερδέδοικά σου how greatly .., S.Ant.82; so perh. ὡς οἰμώξεται Ar.Ra.279; ὡς ἅπανθ' ὑμῖν τυραννίς ἐστι Id.V.488 (troch.).

II. to mark a wish, oh that! c. opt. alone, ὡς ἔρις ..ἀπόλοιτο Il.18.107; ὡς ἀπόλοιτο καὶ ἄλλος Od.1.47, cf. S.El.126 (lyr.); also ὡς ἄν or κε with opt., ὡς ἂν ἔπειτ' ἀπὸ σεῖο οὐκ ἐθέλοιμι λείπεσθαι Il.9.444; ὥς κέ οἱ αὖθι γαῖα χάνοι 6.281.

2. joined with other words of wishing, ὡς ὤφελες αὐτόθ' ὀλέσθαι 3.428; ὡς δὴ μὴ ὄφελον νικᾶν Od.11.548.

E. ὡς with numerals marks that they are to be taken only as a round number, as it were, about, nearly, σὺν ἀνθρώποις ὡς εἴκοσι X.An.3.3.5; also ὡς πέντε μάλιστά κῃ about five (v. μάλα 111.5), Hdt.7.30:—
also with words compounded with numerals, δέπας ..ὡς τριλάγυνον Stesich.7; παῖς ὡς ἑπτέτης of some seven years, Pl. Grg.471c; δρέπανα ὡς διπήχη X.Cyr.6.1.30, cf. An.5.4.12; cf. ὡσεί 111.

F. ὡς in some elliptical (or apparently elliptical) phrases:

1. ὡς τί δὴ τόδε (sc. γένηται); to what end? E.Or.796 (troch.); cf. ἵνα B.11.3c.

2. know that (sc. ἴσθι), ὡς ἔστιν ἀνδρὸς τοῦδε τἄργα ταῦτά σοι S.Aj.39; ὡς τοῦτό γ' ἔρξας δύο φέρει δωρήματα Id.Ph.117; ὡς τῆσδ' ἑκοῦσα παιδὸς οὐ μεθήσομαι E.Hec.400, cf. Med.609, Ph.720; ὡς τάχ' οὐκέθ' αἱματηρὸν ..ἀργήσει ξίφος ib.625 (troch.); so in Com., ὡς ἔστ' ἐν ἡμῖν τῆς πόλεως τὰ πράγματα Ar.Lys.32, cf. 499 (anap.), Ach. 333 (troch.), Nu.209; also ἀλλ' ὡς ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους πάρεστιν ἄγγελος οὐδείς Id.Av.1119.

3. ὡς ἕκαστος, ἕκαστοι, each severally (whether in respect of time, place, or other difference), ξυνελέγοντο ..Κορίνθιοι δισχίιοι ὁπλῖται, οἱ δ' ἄλλοι ὡς ἕκαστοι, Φλειάσιοι δὲ πανστρατιᾷ Th.5.57, cf. 1.107, 113; πρώτη τε αὕτη πόλις ξυμμαχὶς παρὰ τὸ καθεστηκὸς ἐδουλώθη, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὡς ἑκάστη [ξυνέβη] (ξ. secl. Krüger: ἀπὸ κοινοῦ ἐδουλώθη Sch.l.c.) Id.1.98; ἄλλοι τε παριόντες ἐγκλήματα ἐποιοῦντο ὡς ἕκαστοι ib.67, cf. 7.65; χρησμολόγοι τε ᾖδον χρησμοὺς παντοίους, ὧν ἀκροᾶσθαι ὡς ἕκαστος ὥρμητο, i. e. different persons ran to listen to different prophecies, Id.2.21; τὰς ἄλλας ὡς ἑκάστην ποι ἐκπεπτωκυῖαν ἀναδησάμενοι ἐκόμιζον ἐς τὴν πόλιν they made fast to the rest wherever each (ship) had been run ashore, Id.7.74; οἱ δ' οὖν ὡς ἕκαστοι Ἕλληνες κατὰ πόλεις τε ὅσοι ἀλλήλων ξυνίεσαν καὶ ξύμπαντες ὕστερον κληθέντες οὐδὲν πρὸ τῶν Τρωικῶν ..ἁθρόοι ἔπραξαν the various peoples that were later called by the common name of Greeks, Id.1.3; ὡς ἑκάστῳ ἔργον προστάσσων Hdt.1.114; ὡς ἑκάστην (one by one) αἱρέοντες (sc. τὰς νήσους) οἱ βάρβαροι ἐσαγήνευον τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Id.6.31, cf. 79; ὡς ἑκασταχόσε D.C.41.9, al.; rarely with a Verb, ὡς ἕκαστος ἀπικνέοιτο Hdt.1.29, cf. Th.6.2: later ὡς follows ἕκαστος, ἑκάστῳ ὡς ὁ Θεὸς ἐμέρισεν μέτρον πίστεως Ep.Rom.12.3:—
for the etymology v. infr. H; also ὡς ἑκάτεροι Th.3.74 (v. infr. H).

G. ὡς pleonast. in ὡς ὅτι D.H. 9.14, 2 Ep.Cor.11.21, Sch.A Il.1.264, 129, 396, 3.280, AP9.530, dub.l. in Str.15.1.57.

H. Etymology: this word is in origin five distinct words: (1) ὡς 'as' is the Adv. fr. the Relat. ὅς (I.-E. stem yo-); with ὡς βέλτιστος cf. Skt. yācchrēá 'the best possible': (2) ὧς 'thus' is the Adv. of a Demonstr. stem so- found in Skt. sa, Gr. ὁ, Lat. sō-c (Gloss. = ita, cf. Umbr. esoc); (3) ὡς postpositive (ὄρνιθες ὥς, etc.) constantly makes a preceding short closed syll. long in Hom., and must therefore have been fως; it may perh. be related to Skt. vā, a form of va, iva ( = (1) or (2) like), Lat. ve, Gr. ἦ[f] ε; (4) ὡς prep. 'to' is of doubtful origin (perh. fr. ὠς, cogn. with Lat. ōs 'face', Skt. ās: ὤς τινα ἐλθεῖν like τί δέ δε φρένας ἵκετο πένθος;); (5) ὡς F.3 is prob. fως, Adv. of fός the reflexive Adj., and means lit. in his (their) own way (or place); it is idiomatically placed before ἕκαστος (ἑκάτερος), cf. fὸν fεκάτερος Leg.Gort.1.18.