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ψῑλός, ή, όν,

I. of land, bare, ψ. ἄροσις open cornland, Il.9.580; πεδίον μέγα τε καὶ ψ. Hdt.1.80; ὁ λόφος ..δασὺς ἴδῃσί ἐστι, ἐούσης τῆς ἄλλης Λιβύης ψ. Id.4.175; ἀπὸ ψ. τῆς γῆς Pl.Criti. 111d, cf. X.An.1.5.5, etc.: in full, [γῆ] ψ. δενδρέων Hdt.4.19,21; ἄδενδρα καὶ ψ., of the Alps, Plb.3.55.9; τὰ ψ. (sc. χωρία), opp. τὰ ὑλώδη, X.Cyn.5.7; τόποι ψ. ib.4.6; ψ. γεωργία the tillage of land for corn and the like, opp. γ. πεφυτευμένη (the tillage of it for vines, olives, etc.), Arist.Pol.1258b18, Thphr.CP3.20.1; so γῆ ψ. Eup. 230, D.20.115, Tab.Heracl.1.175, 2.33; ἐλαῖαι, ὧν νῦν τὰ πολλὰ ἐκκέκοπται καὶ ἡ γῆ ψ. γεγένηται Lys.7.7.

II. of animals, stripped of hair or feathers, smooth (cf. λεῖος 1.3), δέρμα ..ἐλάφοιο Od.13.437; σάρξ Hp.Aër.19; ἡμίκραιραν ψ. ἔχων with half the head shaved, Ar. Th.227; ψ. γνάθοι ib.583; τὴν ὀσφὺν κομιδῇ ψ. Pherecr.23.4 (anap.); used of dogs with a short, smooth coat of hair, X.Cyn.3.2; τὴν δίποδα ἀγέλην τῷ ψ. καὶ τῷ πτεροφυεῖ τέμνειν Pl.Plt.266e; ἄνθρωπος -ότατον κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τῶν ζῴων πάντων ἐστί Arist.GA745b16; so ἶβις ψ. τὴν κεφαλήν without feathers, bald on the head, Hdt.2.76; hairless, of the foetus of a hare, Id.3.108; ψ. τὰ περὶ τὴν κεφαλήν, of the ostrich, Arist.PA697b18.

b. ψιλαὶ Περσικαί Persian carpets, Callix.2; such a carpet is called ψιλή alone, PSI7.858.2 (iii B. C., pl.), LXXJo.7.21; ψιλὴ πολύμιτος, Babylonicum, Gloss.; ψιλή = aulaeum, tapeta, ibid.; cf. ψιλόταπις.

2. generally, bare, uncovered, ψ. ὡς ὁρᾷ νέκυν, i. e. without any earth over it, S.Ant.426; of a horse which has thrown its rider, AP13.18 (Parmeno).

b. c. gen., bare of, separated from, ψ. σώματος οὖσα [ἡ ψυχή] Pl.Lg.899a; τέχναι ψ. τῶν πράξεων Id.Plt.258d; ψ. ὅπλων Id.Lg.834c; ἱππέων X.Cyr.5.3.57; θηρία μεμονωμένα καὶ ψ. τῶν Ἰνδῶν Plb.11.1.12.

c. stripped of appendages, naked, ψ. [τρόπις] the bare keel with the planks torn from it, Od.12.421; ψ. μάχαιραι swords alone, without other arms, etc., X.Cyr.4.5.58; θάλαττα ψ. blank sea, Aristid.Or.25(43).50.

III. freq. in Prose, as a military term, of soldiers without heavy armour, light troops, such as archers and slingers, opp. ὁπλῖται, first in Hdt.7.158, al., freq. in Th., e. g. ὁπλίζει τὸν δῆμον, πρότερον ψ. ὄντα 3.27, cf. Arr.Tact.3.3; ὁ ψ. ὅμιλος Th.4.125; so ψιλοί or τὸ ψιλόν, opp. τὸ ὁπλιτικόν, X.HG4.2.17, Arist.Pol.1321a7; ψιλός, opp. ὡπλισμένος, S.Aj.1123: coupled with ἄσκευος, Id.OC1029; ψιλὸς στρατεύσομαι Ar.Th.232; ψ. δύναμις Arist.Pol.1321a13; αἱ κοῦφαι καὶ αἱ ψ. ἐργασίαι work that belongs to unarmed soldiers, ib.1321a25; ψ. χερσὶν πρὸς καθωπλισμένους Ael.VH6.2: but ψ. ἔχων τὴν κεφαλήν bare-headed, without helmet, X.An.1.8.6; ψ. ἵππος a horse without housings, Id.Eq.7.5: unarmed, defenceless, S.Ph.953.

IV. λόγος ψ. bare language, i. e. prose, opp. to poetry which is clothed in the garb of metre, Pl.Mx.239c, Phld.Mus.p.97K.; more freq. in pl., ψ. λόγοι Pl.Lg.669d; opp. τὰ μέτρα, Arist.Rh.1404b14,33: but in D.27.54 ψ. λόγος is a mere speech, a speech unsupported by evidence; and in Pl.Tht.165a ψιλοὶ λόγοι are mere forms of argumentation, dialectical abstractions (so ψιλῶς λέγειν speak nakedly, without alleging proofs, Id.Phdr.262c, cf. Lg.811e); τὰς πράξεις αὐτὰς ψιλὰς φράζοντες Arist.Rh.Al.1438b27.

2. ποίησις ψ. mere poetry, without music, i. e. Epic poetry, opp. Lyric (ἡ ἐν ᾠδῇ), Pl.Phdr.278c; so ἄνευ ὀργάνων ψ. λόγοι Id.Smp.215c, cf. Arist.Po.1447a29; ψ. τῷ στόματι, opp. μετ' ὀργάνων, as a kind of μουσική, Pl.Plt.268b; λύρας φθόγγοι ..ψιλοὶ καὶ ἀμεικτότεροι τῇ φωνῇ Arist.Pr.922a16; ἡ ψ. φωνή the ordinary sound of the voice, opp. singing (ἡ ᾠδική), D.H. Comp.11.

3. ψ. μουσική instrumental music unaccompanied by the voice, opp. ἡ μετὰ μελῳδίας, Arist.Pol.1339b20; ψιλῷ μέλει διαγωνίζεσθαι πρὸς ᾠδὴν καὶ κιθάραν, of Marsyas, Plu.2.713d, cf. Phld.Mus. p.100K.; so ψ. κιθάρισις καὶ αὔλησις Pl.Lg.669e; ψιλὸς αὐλητής one who plays unaccompanied on the flute (cf. ψιλοκιθαριστής), Phryn. 145.

V. mere, simple (cf. supr. IV. 1), ἀριθμητικὴ ψιλή, opp. geometry and the like , Pl.Plt.299e; ὕδωρ ψ., opp. σὺν οἴνῳ, Hp.Int.35; ψ. ἀναίρεσις mere removal, Phld.Sign.12; ψ. ἄνδρες, i. e. men without women, Antip.Stoic.3.254:—
Oedipus calls Antigone his ψιλὸν ὄμμα, as being the one poor eye left him, S.OC866. Adv. ψιλῶς merely, only, Plu.Per.15; ἕνεκα τοῦ ψ. εἰπεῖν for the purpose of merely saying, Sch. Il.Oxy.1086.65; ψ. ὀνομάζειν call by the bare name (without epithet), Phld.Vit.p.39J.

VI. Gramm. of vowels, ψ. ἦχος without the spiritus asper, Demetr.Eloc.73; ψ. πνεῦμα A.D.Adv.148.9, D.T.Supp. 674.15; ψιλῶς λέγεσθαι A.D.Pron.57.3.

b. of the letters ε and υ written simply, not as αι and οι, which represented the sounds in late Gr., μαθόντες τὰ διὰ τοῦ διφθόγγου ᾱῑ τυχὸν ἅπαντα, ἐδιδάχθημεν τὰ ἄλλα πάντα ψιλὰ γράφεσθαι Hdn.Epim.162, cf. An.Ox.1.124: hence ἐψιλόν as name of the letter ε and ὐψιλόν as name of υ, which are first found in Anon. post Et.Gud.679.6, 678.55, and Chrysoloras: ἐ ψιλόν is f. l. in D.T.631.5: but in πᾶσα λέξις ἀπὸ τῆς κ̄ε̄ συλλαβῆς ἀρχομένη διὰ τοῦ ε̄ ψιλοῦ γράφεται ..πλὴν τοῦ καί, κτλ. Hdn.Epim.62, ε̄ ψ. is not yet merely the name of the letter: for ὐψιλόν v. sub ὖ, cf. Sch. Heph.p.93C.

2. of mute consonants, the litterae tenues, π κ τ, opp. φ χ θ, o(/sai gi/gnontai xwri\s th=s tou= pneu/matos e)kbolh=s Arist. Aud.804b10, cf. D.H.Comp.14, D.T.631.21; ψιλῶς καλεῖν pronounce with a littera tenuis for an aspirate, e. g., ῥάπυς for ῥάφυς, ἀσπάραγος for ἀσφάραγος, Ath.9.369b, cf. Eust.81.5, Tz.H.11.58.